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1

macroevolution

species to species evolution, all species evolved from one species

2

microevolution

change/evolution only within a species

3

oc march and thomas huxley

marsh=paleontologist, huxlex=evolutionist, presented their theory in mew york (1879) at us journal of science conference

4

most common injuries to horses in hauling

58% head and 22% legs

5

how is stress measured in horses?

cortisol levels

6

shipping fever

respiratory illness, caused by an elevated head position and can't get rid of pathogens

7

top horse breeds in KY

1. thoroughbred 2. quarter horse 3. TN walking horses/saddlebreds

8

top uses of horses in KY

1. trail riding/pleasure 2. broodmares 3. idle/not working 4. competition

9

how are stud fees established?

yearling prices

10

stacking

put pads under front feet of horses so they had more knee action

11

soring

causing pain in the horses front legs so the horses would pick their legs up high and quickly

12

ways to cause soring

chemical ways (diesel fuel, salicylic acid, carosine), pressure shoeing(grinding foot down to lamina layer), mechanical soring (chains put around pastern, often used with chemical soring)

13

how soring could be masked

topical anestetics to numb the area, stewarding (training horses not to respond to pain), inflicting pain somewhere else

14

horse protection act

1976, congress passed horse protection act (HPA), outlawed soring (all chemical irritants), could use chains weighing 6 oz or less and limited the height of stacking

15

VMOs

veterinary medical officers, trained by USDA to detect spring, many threatened by trainers for enforcing the law

16

DQP

designated qualified person,trained by walking horse industry

17

what to do with unwanted horses

sell the horse, lease the horse, give the horse away or donate it, euthanasia

18

methods of euthanasia

chemical or captive bolt

19

what to do with a dead horse

burry it (restricted, can cost up to $1000), rendered (75-200$), incinerate (1200-2000)

20

slaughter plants in the US

1 in Illinois, 2 in Texas

21

types of slaughter plants in Mexico

backyard butchers-only for Mexican Horses, slaughtering plants- horses had body scores of 4-6, handled well and had accurate killing

22

deciduous teeth

baby teeth

23

hypsodont

permanent teeth

24

incisors

most anterior teeth, pincers for grasping and picking

25

canines

most commonly found in males, some females

26

premolars

immediately posterior to the canines

27

molars

most posterior teeth

28

cup

center of enamel spot-deepest part of infundibulum

29

enamel spot

deepest part of infundibulum, appears after 8 years when the cusp wears away

30

dental star

pulp cavity, appears after 8 years, first looks like a line then progresses to a large round spot