Final Lecture 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Lecture 10 Deck (32):
1

How are camelids usually bred

Natural breeding- rotate among males because 24/7 exposure to females lowers libido

AI isn’t commonly used

2

If you do want to AI, what should you see first on US

Follicle that is at least 7 mm and growing

3

How can you induce ovulation

Vasectomized male
GnRH
HCG
Seminal plasma injection (IM)

4

What can you inseminate

22-24 hours after induction of ovulation of within 2 hours ovulation detected

5

Indirect method of diagnosing pregnancy

Behavioral refusal to male
Progesterone assay

6

Direct method of diagnosing pregnancy

Rectal palpation
US

7

What should P4 be if she is pregnant

Greater than 1 mg/mL at 21 days post breeding

8

When can you diagnose pregnancy through rectal palpation in camelids

35 or more days after breeding/ovulation

9

How early can you detect pregnancy through ultrasound in camelids

Transrectally- 12-16 days
Transabdominally- 60 days (left side)

10

How to induce parturition

Very low doses of Prostaglandin, NOT steroids (will kill them)

11

What developmental abnormalities might cause female infertility

Segmental aplasia
Double cervix
Double uterus- didephia
Persistent hymen

12

What ovarian abnormalities might cause female infertility

Hypoplasia
Cystic follices- most common
Hemorrhagic follicles
Neoplasia

13

What uterine abnormalities might cause female infertility

Bacterial endometritis
Metritis
Uterine scarring (fibrosis)
Cystic glandular distension

14

Most common organisms causing endometritis

Strep
E col
Staph
Bacillus
Bacterioides
Fusobacterium necrophorum

15

What can you diagnose with vaginoscopy

Vaginitis
Cervicitis
Cervical tears
Etc

16

What can you diagnose with hysteroscopy

Adhesions
Endometritis
Cysts
Tumors

17

What can you see on endometrial biopsy

Endometritis
Periglandular fibrosis
Cystic gland distension

18

How to treat ovarian cysts

Sexual rest

19

How to treat hemorrhagic follice

No treatment needed

20

How to treat neoplasia

Surgery

21

How to treat endometritis due to bacteria

Uterine lavage and infusion of antibiotics

22

What testicular abnormalities might the male have

Hypoplasia
Degeneration
Cryptochoridism
Orchitis
Hydrocele
Neoplasia

23

What penile abnormalities might the male have

Prepucial stricture
Persistent frenulum
Corkscrew penis
Penile deviation
Balanitis, posthitis

24

Is preg loss common in camelids

Yes very common less than 90 days

25

What are non infectious causes of embryo/fetal loss

Twins
Nutrition
Pine needles
Stress

26

What are infectious causes of embryonic/fetal loss

Lepto
Chamydophila
Neosporosis
Toxoplasmosis
Listeriosis
A. Pyogenes
Ascending placentitis

27

What are periparturient problems

Uterine torsion
Dystocia
Retained fetal membranes

28

When do most uterine torsions occur

After 335 day of gestaion

29

How to diagnose uterine torsion

Vaginal speculum exam- if torsion is caudal to the cervix

Palpation per rectum to feel deviation of broad ligament

30

Main causes of dystocia

Lateral flexion of head
Posterior presentation and dorsopubic position

31

When should you intervene

If stage 1 lasts more than 6 hours
If stage 2 lasts more than 2 hours

32

Talk about RFM in camelids

Rarely clinically significant
Can administer oxytocin and uterine lavage