Final Lecture 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Lecture 9 Deck (30):
1

What is an abortion?

Loss of fetus between day 42 and day 260

2

What is abortion incidence in dairy cattle?
Beef cattle?

10-15%

2.5-5%

3

What are infectious causes of abortion

Viral
Bacterial
Protozoal
Mycotic

4

What are non infectious causes of abortion

Drugs
Vitamin or nutrient deficiency
Toxic plants or substances
Elevated temperature

5

What are two viruses that cause abortion

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR aka bovine herpes BHV-1)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVD)

6

How to diagnose IBR

Focal necrosis in the liver
Intranuclear inclusion bodies
4 fold increase in convalescence titers
Isolation of virus from placenta
FAT

7

When should you vaccinate for IBR

Calves: 4-6 months of age
3-4 weeks before breeding

Modified live- vaccinate every year but not in pregnant cows
Killed- safe in pregnant cows but requires booster

8

What unique symptoms does BVD cause and how is this different from IBR

Cerebellar hypoplasia
Micropthalmia

Mummies, infertility, weak calves

With IBR, its just abortions usually

9

What happens if a cow is infected with BVD before 4 months gestation (125 days)

Cytopathic- fetal death, mummies
Non cytopathic- fetal death or persistently infected calf (shedder

10

What happens if cow is infected with BVD after 4 months of gestation (125 days)

Cytopathic and non cytopathic- cerebellar hypoplasia, ocular defects, abortion

11

How to diagnose BVD

Isolate virus from whole blood
Immunohistochemistry, ELISA, PCR

12

How to prevent persistently infected calf

Vaccinate with modified live before 4 months gestation as long as cow received that vaccine within the last 12 months

13

What species of lepto cause abortion

Interrogans
Borgpertersenii
Kirschneri

14

How is lepto transmitted

Urine and products of abortion

15

How long is lepto shed in the urine

2-6 months

16

What are incidental vs maintenance host

Incidental hosts experiences acute form of disease, but maintenance hosts are have adaptations of certain serovars and experience chronic disease and are lifelong carriers

*maintenance hosts have no symptoms but abortion

17

What are cattle a maintenance host for

L. Borgpetersenii hardgo bovi

18

What lepto serovars should you vaccinate for in cattle

All of them!

19

How often should you vaccinate against lepto

Twice a year

20

What do you with campylobacteriosis

Usually late embryonic death (not abortion

21

Clinical signs of campylobacteriosis

Prolonged estrus
Low preg rates
Occasionally abortion caused by placentitis

22

How is campylobacter transmitted

During coitus

Transmitted from asymptomatic bull

23

How to diagnose campylobacter

Herd history
Antibodies in cervical mucus
Culture

24

Who should you vaccinate against campylobacter

Both the female and the male

25

What does trichomnoiasis cause

Infertility mostly
May cause an occasional abortion or pyometra
Same as vibriosis

26

How to diagnose trichomoniasis

Examine and lavage prepuce of bulls
Send pyometra fluid to lab

27

Who does the trichomoniasis vx not work in

Not effective in bulls- test and cull positive as part of BSE

28

What is pathogneumonic for neosporosis

Cysts in heart and brain of fetus

29

What will you see with mycotic abortions

Placentitis- thick and leathery
May see fetal skin lesions

30

What are toxic plants that cause abortion

Ponderosa pine needles
Locoweed
Broomweed/snakeweed
Moldy sweet clover