Flashcards in Final Review #3 Deck (70):
Main function of the scrotum
provide cooler temperature needed for sperm production
Spermatic Cord is made of:
What 2 things do the testes produce?
sperm and androgens (testosterone)
Up to how many testicular lobules might one testicle contain?
Approximately how may somniferous tubules are found in each testicular lobule?
Interstitial cells are involved in the production of ___ as where sustentacular/sertoli cells assist in the development of ___
5 stages of spermatogenesis
2. primary spermatocyte
3. secondary spermatocyte
5. spermatozoa (sperm cell)
Facts about spermatogenesis
-begins at puberty
-occurs in seminiferous tubules
-controlled by FSH and testosterone
-100-200mil sperm produced each day
contains digestive enzymes to break through outer layer of oocyte
contains DNA that will help determine genetic makeup of fetus
contains flagellum to provide motility
contains mitochondria to provide energy of movement
Funcion of epididymis, vas deferens, and urethra
-store sperm and help them become motile
-contain muscularis tissue to push sperm up to ejaculatory duct
-carry urine and sperm outside the penis
Seminal Vesicles: what is secreted and purpose of secretion
-fructose: nourishes sperm
-prostaglandins: widens cervix
-bicarbonate: neutralizes vaginal acid
Prostate Gland: what is secreted and purpose of secretion
-citric acid: provides nutrients for sperm
-seminalplasmin: antibiotics ot combat male UTI
-prostate specific antigen: liquifies semen after ejaculation
Bulbourethral Glands: what is secreted and purpose of secretion
-mucus: coats urethra/lubricant for sexual intercouse
HWhat percentage of men over 80 suffer form benign prostatic hyperplasia
How are men tested for prostate cancer after the age of 40
-digital rectal exam or psa test
Erection is under ___ control as where ejaculatoin is under ___ control
-"P"oint and "S"hoot
How does an erection occur?
-blood fills the erectile tissue because deep arteries dilate
-blood is trapped in errectile tissue because veins are compressed
-the cutting and tying of vas defers in the male sexual partner
-knowing when a woman ovulates and avoiding intercourse during the time she is most fertile
-places a device in the woman's vagina for 3 weeks out of the month and releases hormones to avoid pregnancy
Mifepristone (Abortion Pill)
-triggers an abortion
most sure way to avoid pregnancy and STDs
-not always effective form of contraception
-used by women who are currently breast-feeding a newborn baby
-cutting and tying of uterine tubes in the female sexual partner
-condoms, diaphragms, and spermicidal gels
IUD (intrauterine device)
-implanting a T-shaped device that may prevent fertilization or implantation
Other forms of contraceptions not mentioned
-birth control pills
-implants or injections
-morning after pill
Purpose of sperm capacitation
prepares the acrosome to be ready for fertilization of the secondary oocyte
Three phases of fertilization
1. corona radiata penetration
2. acrosome reaction and zone pellucid penetration
3. fusion of sperm and oocyte plasma membranes and pronuclei
Where does fertilization take place? What specific structure most often?
`What is taking place during the cleavage period?
-the cells of the zygote divide as it moves down the uterine tube and prepares to enter the uterus
about how many cells are within the zygote when it is officially considered a blastocyst and prepares for implantation?
Implantation occurs about how many days after fertilization?
What are the inner and outer layers of the blastocyst called just prior to implantation?
Where does sperm capacitation occur?
female repro tract
where does fertilization occur?
ampulla of the uterine tube
where does cleavage occur?
down the uterine tube
where does implantation occur?
stratum functional is of the endometrium
The trophoblast of the blastocyst is composed of what 2 structures?
What structure initiates the burrowing into of the stratum functional is and produces human chorionic gonadotropin
What do the cytotrophoblast and syncitiotrophoblast go on to become during gpregnancy
-chorion and placenta
`What is the purpose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?
to preserve the corpus luteum
why is it clinically significant that hCG enters the bloodstream and is even urinated?
-it is the basis of urinary pregnancy tests
The placenta helps produce what 2 hormones?
estrogen and progesterone
During pregnancy the mother breaths in __% more air and has __% more blood than usual
Processes during the embryonic period
-primitive streak folds
-limb buds form
What causes testes to develop?
if TDF is on the Y chromosome
Embryos initially contain ____ and ___ duct systems
male and female
name for female duct
name for male duct
What determines what duct system will degenerate?
genes and hormones
What processes contribute to the internal male development
-paramesonephric duct degenerates
-mesonephric duct forms the epididymis and vas deferens
What processes contribute to the internal female development?
-mesonephric duct degenerates
-paramesonephric ducts from the uterine tubes
-fused paramesonephric ducts form the uterus
What does the gentile tubercle become on a male? female?
-glans of penis
What does the urogenital fold become on a male? female?
-shaft of penis
What does the labioscrotal swelling become on a male? female?
organs that share the same embryonic origin
What is the main function during the fetal period?
the maturation and growth of organs
Gestation lasts __ weeks from conception or __ weeks from the last menstrual cycle
During gestation a women's breasts will...
enlarge and develop the ability to produce milk
During gestation the utereus expands __ times larger than normal
____ soften the cervix and loosen the pubic symphysis in preparation for birth
Mild contractions may occur due to a more active ____
-begins with first regular contraction and ends when cervix is fully dilated
lasts from full dilation to delivery of baby
-eliminates the placenta
-15-30 min after childbirth