Final Review #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Review #3 Deck (70):
1

Main function of the scrotum

provide cooler temperature needed for sperm production

2

Spermatic Cord is made of:

-vas deferens
-cremaster muscle
-testicular nerve
-testicular vessels

3

What 2 things do the testes produce?

sperm and androgens (testosterone)

4

Up to how many testicular lobules might one testicle contain?

250

5

Approximately how may somniferous tubules are found in each testicular lobule?

4

6

Interstitial cells are involved in the production of ___ as where sustentacular/sertoli cells assist in the development of ___

-androgens
-sperm

7

5 stages of spermatogenesis

1. spermatogonium
2. primary spermatocyte
3. secondary spermatocyte
4. spermatid
5. spermatozoa (sperm cell)

8

Facts about spermatogenesis

-begins at puberty
-occurs in seminiferous tubules
-controlled by FSH and testosterone
-100-200mil sperm produced each day

9

acrosome

contains digestive enzymes to break through outer layer of oocyte

10

head

contains DNA that will help determine genetic makeup of fetus

11

tail

contains flagellum to provide motility

12

mdipiece

contains mitochondria to provide energy of movement

13

Funcion of epididymis, vas deferens, and urethra

-store sperm and help them become motile
-contain muscularis tissue to push sperm up to ejaculatory duct
-carry urine and sperm outside the penis

14

Seminal Vesicles: what is secreted and purpose of secretion

-fructose: nourishes sperm
-prostaglandins: widens cervix
-bicarbonate: neutralizes vaginal acid

15

Prostate Gland: what is secreted and purpose of secretion

-citric acid: provides nutrients for sperm
-seminalplasmin: antibiotics ot combat male UTI
-prostate specific antigen: liquifies semen after ejaculation

16

Bulbourethral Glands: what is secreted and purpose of secretion

-mucus: coats urethra/lubricant for sexual intercouse

17

HWhat percentage of men over 80 suffer form benign prostatic hyperplasia

>80%

18

How are men tested for prostate cancer after the age of 40

-digital rectal exam or psa test

19

Erection is under ___ control as where ejaculatoin is under ___ control

-parasympathetic
-sympathetic

-"P"oint and "S"hoot

20

How does an erection occur?

-blood fills the erectile tissue because deep arteries dilate
-blood is trapped in errectile tissue because veins are compressed

21

Vasectomy

-the cutting and tying of vas defers in the male sexual partner

22

Rhythm Method

-knowing when a woman ovulates and avoiding intercourse during the time she is most fertile

23

Vaginal Ring

-places a device in the woman's vagina for 3 weeks out of the month and releases hormones to avoid pregnancy

24

Mifepristone (Abortion Pill)

-triggers an abortion

25

Abstinence

most sure way to avoid pregnancy and STDs

26

Lactation

-not always effective form of contraception
-used by women who are currently breast-feeding a newborn baby

27

Tubal Ligation

-cutting and tying of uterine tubes in the female sexual partner

28

Barrier Method

-condoms, diaphragms, and spermicidal gels

29

IUD (intrauterine device)

-implanting a T-shaped device that may prevent fertilization or implantation

30

Other forms of contraceptions not mentioned

-birth control pills
-estrogen/progesterone patches
-implants or injections
-morning after pill

31

Purpose of sperm capacitation

prepares the acrosome to be ready for fertilization of the secondary oocyte

32

Three phases of fertilization

1. corona radiata penetration
2. acrosome reaction and zone pellucid penetration
3. fusion of sperm and oocyte plasma membranes and pronuclei

33

Where does fertilization take place? What specific structure most often?

-uterine tube
-ampulla

34

`What is taking place during the cleavage period?

-the cells of the zygote divide as it moves down the uterine tube and prepares to enter the uterus

35

about how many cells are within the zygote when it is officially considered a blastocyst and prepares for implantation?

100

36

Implantation occurs about how many days after fertilization?

7

37

What are the inner and outer layers of the blastocyst called just prior to implantation?

-inner: embryoblast
-outer: trophoblast

38

Where does sperm capacitation occur?

female repro tract

39

where does fertilization occur?

ampulla of the uterine tube

40

where does cleavage occur?

down the uterine tube

41

where does implantation occur?

stratum functional is of the endometrium

42

The trophoblast of the blastocyst is composed of what 2 structures?

-cytotrophoblst
-syncytiotrophoblast

43

What structure initiates the burrowing into of the stratum functional is and produces human chorionic gonadotropin

-syncytiotrophoblast

44

What do the cytotrophoblast and syncitiotrophoblast go on to become during gpregnancy

-chorion and placenta

45

`What is the purpose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?

to preserve the corpus luteum

46

why is it clinically significant that hCG enters the bloodstream and is even urinated?

-it is the basis of urinary pregnancy tests

47

The placenta helps produce what 2 hormones?

estrogen and progesterone

48

During pregnancy the mother breaths in __% more air and has __% more blood than usual

-20
-50

49

Processes during the embryonic period

-primitive streak folds
-gastrulation
-body folding
-neurulation
-limb buds form
-organogenesis

50

What causes testes to develop?

if TDF is on the Y chromosome

51

Embryos initially contain ____ and ___ duct systems

male and female

52

name for female duct

paramesonephric

53

name for male duct

mesonephric

54

What determines what duct system will degenerate?

genes and hormones

55

What processes contribute to the internal male development

-paramesonephric duct degenerates
-mesonephric duct forms the epididymis and vas deferens

56

What processes contribute to the internal female development?

-mesonephric duct degenerates
-paramesonephric ducts from the uterine tubes
-fused paramesonephric ducts form the uterus

57

What does the gentile tubercle become on a male? female?

-glans of penis

-clitoris

58

What does the urogenital fold become on a male? female?

-shaft of penis

-labia minora

59

What does the labioscrotal swelling become on a male? female?

-scrotum

-labia majora

60

Homologues

organs that share the same embryonic origin

61

What is the main function during the fetal period?

the maturation and growth of organs

62

Gestation lasts __ weeks from conception or __ weeks from the last menstrual cycle

-38
-40

63

During gestation a women's breasts will...

enlarge and develop the ability to produce milk

64

During gestation the utereus expands __ times larger than normal

20

65

____ soften the cervix and loosen the pubic symphysis in preparation for birth

hormones

66

Mild contractions may occur due to a more active ____

myometrium

67

Cervical Dilation

-longest stage
-begins with first regular contraction and ends when cervix is fully dilated

68

Expulsion

lasts from full dilation to delivery of baby

69

placental

-eliminates the placenta
-15-30 min after childbirth

70

Reasons for Cesarean section

-previous c section
-narrow pelvis and large fetus
-placental abruption (detachment)
-placenta previa (covers cervix)
-atypical prevention of baby
-cord prolapse (cord exits before baby)
-fetal distress