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Flashcards in Final Review Deck (49):
1

Mechanical Digestion

-physical breakdown of food
-includes mastication and segmentation

2

Secretion

the production and release of bile, enzymes, and mucus

3

Peristalsis

-form of propulsion
-is the muscular contraction that moves food through the GI tract (NOT break it down)
-contraction and relaxation

4

Chemical digestion

enzymatic breakdown of food

5

Absorption

-the way in which nutrients transport into blood/lymph vessels

6

Segmentation

-local contractions of smooth muscle
-involved with mechanical digestion
-mixes food with digestive juices

7

Four Layers of GI Tract Wall (deep to superficial)

-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa

8

Functions of Mucosa and Muscularis

-mucosa: secretion and absorption
-muscularis: segmentation and peristalsis

9

The Lips and Oral Cavity Are Lined With _____ Epithelium.

nonkeratinized stratified

10

The Oral Cavity is the first site for ____ Digestion

both mechanical and chemical

11

Amylase

-found in saliva
-begins to break down starch

12

Which Salivary Gland Produces the Most Amount of Saliva? What percentage does is produce?

-submandibular
-60-70%

13

About how much saliva do the salivary glands combine to make each day?

about 1.5 L

14

How many teeth do adults have (include wisdom teeth)?

32

15

Kinds of Teeth and how many

-8 incisors
-4 canines
-8 premolars
-12 molars

16

What type of epithelium lines the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?

stratified squamous epithelium

17

What process of digestion do the oropharynx and laryngopharynx aid with?

swallowing

18

3 phases of swallowing, voluntary or involuntary, and what occurs in each

-voluntary phase (voluntary): bolus of food is pushed by tongue against hard palate and moves toward oropharynx

-pharyngeal phase (involuntary): soft palate and uvula close off nasopharynx. Larynx elevates so the epiglottis closes over laryngeal opening

-esophageal phase (involuntary): peristaltic contractions of the esophageal muscle push bolus toward stomach

19

Things to know about the esophagus

-lined with stratified squamous epithelium
-propels swallowed food to stomach via peristalsis
-runs through opening in the diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus

20

Functions of Stomach

-storage of food
-mechanical digestion through churning with gastric juice
-chemical digestion of proteins

21

Stomach Wall Histology:
Cell type, what it secretes, and purpose of secretion

-surface mucous cell: mucin- lubrication and protection of epithelium
-mucous neck cell: acidic mucin- protection by creating acidic environment
-parietal cell: hydrochloric acid- activates enzymes and denatures proteins. Intrinsic factor- necessary for the uptake of Vitamin B-12
-chief cell: pepsinogen- converted to pepsin (large protein digestion)
-enteroendocrine cell: gastrin- enters into the bloodstream as a hormone

22

WWhat is the bacterium associated with 80% of peptic ulcer cases?

helicobacter pylori

23

WhaHow do you treat a peptic ulcer?

either eliminate bacteria via antibiotics or eliminate acid

24

Reflux esophagitis is commonly reffered to as ____

heartburn

25

During reflux esophagitis, acidic ___ contents are regurgitated into the _____.

-stomach
-esophagus

26

Name some symptoms of reflux esophagitis

-pain in sternum and abdomen
-difficulty swallowing
-increased belching
-bleeding

27

Where does 90% of nutrient absorption occur? How about majority of chemical digestion?

-small intestine
-small intestine

28

What are released from the liver and the pancreas to help aid in chemical digestion?

-liver: bile
-pancreas: digestive enzymes

29

Name the three regions of the small intestine and how long is each?

-duodenum: 12 inches
-jejunum: 8 feet
-ileum: 12 feet

30

What section of the small intestine receives the main pancreatic duct and bile duct which aid in digestion?

duodenum

31

What is the purpose of microvilli in the small intestine?

-increase the surface area of absorption and releases digestive enzymes in the final stages of digestion

32

Type of Hernia based on location:
-intestine push through inguinal canal
-intestines push through the femoral triangle
-stomach pushes through esophageal hiatus
-intestines push through the rectus abdominis

-inguinal hernia
-femoral hernia
-hiatal hernia
-umbilical hernia

33

What two things are primarily absorbed in the large intestine?

-water and electrolytes

34

DWhenAppendicitis

when fecal matter obstructs the appendix it will swell and even burst

35

Colorectal Cancer

second most common form of cancer that arises from intestinal polyps

36

Inflammaory bowel disease

periodic inflammation of the intestinal walls commonly associated with cramps, diarrhea, weight loss, and intestinal bleeding

37

Inestinal obstruction

any hindrance to movement of chyme or feces through the intestine

38

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are all ___ organs, because they secrete substances into the GI tract to facilitate digestion

accessory digestive

39

The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the ___ region of the small intestine

duodenum

40

Wat system is the pancreas a part of. Explain

both endocrine and exocrine because it releases digestive enzymes into the small intestine (exocrine) and also produces insulin and glucagon (hormones of the endocrine system)

41

Functions of the liver

-storage of excess bloodnutrients
-detoxification of poisons and drugs
-clean out debris and old RBC's
-production of blood proteins

42

what is the digestive function of the liver?

to produce bile

43

Liver Cirrhosis

-caused by alcoholism
-liver cells are destroyed and replaced by connective tissue
-results in jaundice and toxin buildup in blood

44

Viral Hepatitis

-inflammation of the liver
-usually associated with flu-like symptoms and jaundice

45

Gallstones

caused by crystallization of cholesterol or calcium and bile salts

46

____ organs lie directly against the body wall and are outside the parietal peritoneum, as where ____ organs are found in the peritoneal cavity

-retroperitoneal
-intraperitoneal

47

Mesenteries

double layer folds that support intraperitoneal organs

48

What does the mesocolon support

pancreas and transverse colon

49

name the retroperitoneal organs

-ascending colon, descending colon, kidneys, pancreas, rectum, duodenum

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