Flashcards in Final Review Deck (49):
-physical breakdown of food
-includes mastication and segmentation
the production and release of bile, enzymes, and mucus
-form of propulsion
-is the muscular contraction that moves food through the GI tract (NOT break it down)
-contraction and relaxation
enzymatic breakdown of food
-the way in which nutrients transport into blood/lymph vessels
-local contractions of smooth muscle
-involved with mechanical digestion
-mixes food with digestive juices
Four Layers of GI Tract Wall (deep to superficial)
-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
Functions of Mucosa and Muscularis
-mucosa: secretion and absorption
-muscularis: segmentation and peristalsis
The Lips and Oral Cavity Are Lined With _____ Epithelium.
The Oral Cavity is the first site for ____ Digestion
both mechanical and chemical
-found in saliva
-begins to break down starch
Which Salivary Gland Produces the Most Amount of Saliva? What percentage does is produce?
About how much saliva do the salivary glands combine to make each day?
about 1.5 L
How many teeth do adults have (include wisdom teeth)?
Kinds of Teeth and how many
What type of epithelium lines the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?
stratified squamous epithelium
What process of digestion do the oropharynx and laryngopharynx aid with?
3 phases of swallowing, voluntary or involuntary, and what occurs in each
-voluntary phase (voluntary): bolus of food is pushed by tongue against hard palate and moves toward oropharynx
-pharyngeal phase (involuntary): soft palate and uvula close off nasopharynx. Larynx elevates so the epiglottis closes over laryngeal opening
-esophageal phase (involuntary): peristaltic contractions of the esophageal muscle push bolus toward stomach
Things to know about the esophagus
-lined with stratified squamous epithelium
-propels swallowed food to stomach via peristalsis
-runs through opening in the diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus
Functions of Stomach
-storage of food
-mechanical digestion through churning with gastric juice
-chemical digestion of proteins
Stomach Wall Histology:
Cell type, what it secretes, and purpose of secretion
-surface mucous cell: mucin- lubrication and protection of epithelium
-mucous neck cell: acidic mucin- protection by creating acidic environment
-parietal cell: hydrochloric acid- activates enzymes and denatures proteins. Intrinsic factor- necessary for the uptake of Vitamin B-12
-chief cell: pepsinogen- converted to pepsin (large protein digestion)
-enteroendocrine cell: gastrin- enters into the bloodstream as a hormone
WWhat is the bacterium associated with 80% of peptic ulcer cases?
WhaHow do you treat a peptic ulcer?
either eliminate bacteria via antibiotics or eliminate acid
Reflux esophagitis is commonly reffered to as ____
During reflux esophagitis, acidic ___ contents are regurgitated into the _____.
Name some symptoms of reflux esophagitis
-pain in sternum and abdomen
Where does 90% of nutrient absorption occur? How about majority of chemical digestion?
What are released from the liver and the pancreas to help aid in chemical digestion?
-pancreas: digestive enzymes
Name the three regions of the small intestine and how long is each?
-duodenum: 12 inches
-jejunum: 8 feet
-ileum: 12 feet
What section of the small intestine receives the main pancreatic duct and bile duct which aid in digestion?
What is the purpose of microvilli in the small intestine?
-increase the surface area of absorption and releases digestive enzymes in the final stages of digestion
Type of Hernia based on location:
-intestine push through inguinal canal
-intestines push through the femoral triangle
-stomach pushes through esophageal hiatus
-intestines push through the rectus abdominis
What two things are primarily absorbed in the large intestine?
-water and electrolytes
when fecal matter obstructs the appendix it will swell and even burst
second most common form of cancer that arises from intestinal polyps
Inflammaory bowel disease
periodic inflammation of the intestinal walls commonly associated with cramps, diarrhea, weight loss, and intestinal bleeding
any hindrance to movement of chyme or feces through the intestine
The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are all ___ organs, because they secrete substances into the GI tract to facilitate digestion
The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the ___ region of the small intestine
Wat system is the pancreas a part of. Explain
both endocrine and exocrine because it releases digestive enzymes into the small intestine (exocrine) and also produces insulin and glucagon (hormones of the endocrine system)
Functions of the liver
-storage of excess bloodnutrients
-detoxification of poisons and drugs
-clean out debris and old RBC's
-production of blood proteins
what is the digestive function of the liver?
to produce bile
-caused by alcoholism
-liver cells are destroyed and replaced by connective tissue
-results in jaundice and toxin buildup in blood
-inflammation of the liver
-usually associated with flu-like symptoms and jaundice
caused by crystallization of cholesterol or calcium and bile salts
____ organs lie directly against the body wall and are outside the parietal peritoneum, as where ____ organs are found in the peritoneal cavity
double layer folds that support intraperitoneal organs
What does the mesocolon support
pancreas and transverse colon