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"Grow-Finish" generally describes which phase of pig production?



What is the lower critical temperature (LCT)?

temp at which the pig must eat more and/or modify its behavior to remain comfortable


What is the main measure(s) of production for the following systems?
1) breeding herd
2) growing herd

1) pigs per sow per year (also pig wean weight)

2) Feed efficiency & ADG


Concerning spermatogenesis, what is the most common cause of abnormal sperm? How long do you have to wait to re-check sperm after abnormalities are seen?

Heat stress

45d--length of spermatogenesis cycle


What is the average WSI? Days in estrus?

WSI= 4-7 d

Estrus= 1-3d (standing heat)

**Shorter WSI= longer estrus= more fertile**


Cardinal sign of estrus in sow?

standing in response to boar exposure


The ideal range for lactation length?



When does MRP occur in sows? What is the signal?

~ day 12

Fetal estrogens

*remember the role of return to estrus if pregnancy is lost before or after this time*


When performing pregnancy checks on gilts/sows, how far into her pregnancy should be be before being considered "safely" pregnant?



You visit a farm because the producer tells you his herd is having a lot of reproductive issues--his stillbirth rate is >10% and there are also increased mummies. When you arrive, you are able to perform necropsy on one of the dead piglets. You find evidence of severe interstitial pneumonia. In addition, the producer tells you even the piglets that are surviving are weak and "don't breathe well". Based on this history, what is your top differential? What is something you can recommend to the producer to help get control of this problem?

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

Recommend serum injections and to improve disinfection techniques. (survive freezing but not heat/drying)


What is one feature of PRRS that makes it so difficult to control?

It's ability to establish persistent infection


PCV2 typically affects pigs in which stage of production?

early finisher


What is the prognosis for finisher pigs that develop PDNS?

What preventative measure works best to prevent PCVAD?

grave--usually die

Vaccination--@ weaning


Which of the following swine diseases is a multi-systemic disease causing CNS signs and death in baby pigs, respiratory disease and CNS signs in growing pigs, and reproductive disease, including abortions, stillbirths and weak pigs in the breeding herd?


*herpes virus (suis herpes 1)
*eradicated from domestic pigs


Which spp. of Salmonella is most commonly associated with systemic disease in pigs?

S. cholera-suis


In addition to the classic "diamond skin" lesions seen with Erysipelas, it commonly affects which other body systems as well? (2)

Cardiovascular (valvular endocarditis)

Joints (enlarged)


A producer calls you because many of his sows are currently off-feed and don't seem to be doing well. A few that he has checked also seem to be running a fever. In addition, the abortion and stillborn rate has significantly increased.
When you perform necropsy you find small grey foci on the kidney with a hyperemic ring... you are suspicious of what as the cause?



A good preventative strategy for herds struggling with parvo virus?


natural infection= lifetime immunity


Which organism is most commonly isolated from abnormal purulent vaginal discharge in sows?

Actinobaculum suis


Colibacillosis in piglets is assoc. with which type of diarrhea?

hypersecretory--due to toxin production


If a producer claims his most recent piglets were "born with diarrhea" you should suspect which organism? What feature is LACKING on histopath that can also give you a clue?

E. coli

A lack of villous atrophy


Which pathogen of baby pigs (~3d old) presents with villous atrophy, hemorrhage, AND necrosis?

What treatment is best?

C. perfringens type C

Penicillins (prophylactic)


A producer calls you for advice because several of his nursing pigs (~9d old) have broken with diarrhea. He has tried several rounds of antibiotics but none seem to be effective. What condition might you suspect based on age and history?

What treatment can you recommend?

Coccidiosis--Isospora suis



What disease should you suspect with the following clues:
--vomiting & severe diarrhea in pigs < 2 weeks
--rapid weight loss
--markedly shortened villi in jejunum & ileum

Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)


Why is vaccination not helpful for TGE?

provides systemic immunity (like IgG) but pigs require LOCAL immunity

*need IgA from milk (feedback to sows)


Pigs with previous exposure to _____ may have less severe signs from TGE. Why?

PRCV (porcine resp. coronavirus)

Creates neutralizing antibodies


What is the most common cause of endemic pre-weaning mortality?

being laid on


The F18 strain of E. coli has been linked to which disease in nursery-age pigs?

Edema disease

*edema of eyelids, face, stomach mucosa, and mesocolon


Which spp. of coccidia is more common post-weaning/

Eimeria spp.


Which disease of nursery pigs can cause purulent meningitis in humans?

Strep suis type 2 (Ss2)


Sudden death in pigs 5-10 weeks old and finding neutrophilic meningitis is indicative of?

What drugs could be used to treat?

Strep suis type 2

Penicillin & ceftiofur


T/F: Hemophilus parasuis can be isolated from the URT of pigs immediately after birth

FALSE--cannot be transmitted in birth canal

*does colonize early though


Which organism is assoc. with polyserositis and polyarthritis (swollen joints) in 3-10 week old pigs?

Where is this pathogen found?

Myocplasma hyorhinis

normal flora of URT


What disease do you suspect based on:
--acute hindlimb lameness
--pigs 3-5 months old
--swelling of synovial membranes

What class of antibiotics would you use to treat?

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae



Concerning influenza, which type is most important? What subtypes are most important?

What is the global reservoir for this virus?

Type A

subtypes: H1N1, H3N2

reservoir= wild waterfowl


What disease is indicated by these signs:
--10-22 week old pigs
--sudden onset of coughing, dyspnea
--recent movement of new animals onto farm
--lesions on cranioventral lung lobes



Which resp pathogen is assoc. with severe, rapidly fatal fibrinohemorrhagic & necrotizing pleuropneumonia in finishing pigs?

**consider scenarios with weather changes (environmental stressors)**

Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP)


If you see skin lesions that make you suspect erysipelas but respiratory signs are predominant, which organism should you suspect?

Actinobacillus suis


Concerning Pasteruellosis
1) Mhp is commonly assoc. with which strain
2) Bordetella which strain?

1) Mhp--> pneumonic

2) Bb--> toxigenic (PAR)


Concerning diarrhea in finisher pigs, lesions in the terminal ileum are most likely related to which organism?

Vaccination for this should be based on?

Lawsonia intracellularis

Vaccinate based on risk of exposure


Causative agent assoc. with Greasy Pig disease

How long can you expect an outbreak to last?

Staph hyicus

1 gestation cycle (3-4 months)