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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (27):
1

To qualify for organic, cattle must have access to pasture for a minimum of?

120d/year (unless the growing season is longer...they should have access throughout the growing season)

2

Which type of cattle are not required to have >30% of the DMI come from pasture?

slaughter stock in last 1/5 of life (<120d)

3

In which type of organic cattle are parasiticides prohibited?

cattle that will become organic MEAT

4

Due to the increased grazing requirements, organic meat may contain higher concentrations of?

Phytoestrogens

5

#1 reason for culling on dairy farms?

reproduction

6

Name the 4 inherent barriers to infection for the udder

1) teat sphincter
2) Furstenburg's rosette
3) keratin plug
4) milk components (PMNs)

7

Name the 5 most common isolates from cow mastitis

1) Strep agalactia
2) Staph aureus
3) Strep uberis
4) Strep dysgalactia
5) E. coli

8

Of the common mastitis pathogens, which are considered CUPs

1) Strep agalactia
2) Staph aureus

*also C. bovis & Mycoplasma

9

Though most CUPs cause subclinical mastitis, which one is commonly assoc. with CLINICAL cases of mastitis?

Mycoplasma

10

Which CUP can be difficult to detect due to intermittent shedding of low bacterial numbers

Staph aureus

11

For which CUP are antibiotics ineffective? Why?

Mycoplasma--lack of cell wall

12

Which CUP is assoc. with the highest bacterial counts, making bulk tank culturing an effective diagnostic tool?

Strep agalactia

13

High coliform counts in the bulk tank correlate with?

wet milking

*NOT with coliform mastitis

14

What mastitis organism would you expect to find in cows with unhealthy/damaged teats

Coagulase negative Staph organisms

**can also be found on hands of milkers

15

Which soil-borne organism can cause gangrenous changes if it infects the udder?

Bacillus cereus

16

Coliform mastitis has a higher incidence in herds with a (LOW/HIGH) SCC (pick one)

LOW

lack of neutrophils could be predisposing?

17

What are the 3 areas tested for milk quality

1) SCC
2) bacterial counts
3) adulterants

18

What is the official test/gold standard for determination of BTSCC (as far as degrading a producer from market)

Direct microscopic cell count

19

A cow-side test that checks milk from each quarter for SCC by adding a reagent that clumps the DNA

California mastitis test

20

What is the main goal of monitoring SCC?

Prevention

21

Name the 2 most common reasons a bulk tank may have elevated SPC?

1) inadequately cleaned equipment
2) inadequate cooling

22

Though the regulatory limit for SPC is < 100,000 and reasonable on-farm goal would be much lower at about ______?

< 5,000 CFU/ml

23

If you culture a high PI count but your SPC was not high, what organism should you expect is contaminating the milk?

Why do we care?

Pseudomonas

elevated numbers are assoc. with decreased shelf-life (NOT a public health concern)

24

Which spp. of bacteria is most commonly assoc. with elevated LPS counts?

Bacillus

25

Most commonly detected adulterant in milk?

Water

26

What is the official test for checking for antibiotics in milk?

Bacillus sterothothermophilus disc assay

*test for inhibitors of bacterial growth

27

What are the 4 major segments in the beef industry?

1) cow-calf producers
2) backgrounder/stocker
3) feedlots
4) processors (slaughter)