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Flashcards in Final Vocabulary Deck (43)
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1

High specific gravity

large quantities of proteins in solutes-salts/sugar/proteins than solvent-water

2

Low specific gravity

much more solvent-water than solutes-salts/sugar/proteins (close to waters density)

3

Elements

pure substances

4

Compounds

pure substances

5

Mixtures

physical combination (NOT a pure substance)

6

Homogeneous mixture

mixed so well you CANNOT distinguish the different components visually

7

Heterogeneous mixture

you CAN distinguish the components but may need a microscope (e.g. blood, milk, etc.)

8

Physical property

properties that can be observed WITHOUT changing the identity of the substance under observation

9

Examples of physical properties

E.g. temp at which a substance changes state (boiled water is still water), size, malleability, conductivity, density, etc.
[Solid→Gas = sublimation] [Gas→Solid = deposition]

10

Chemical property

can only be observed DURING a change in the identity of the substance under observation

11

Examples of chemical properties

E.g. a chemical might be corrosive, combustible, explosive, etc.

12

Physical change

a process that does NOT change the identity of the substance under observation (just a change in physical state)

13

Examples of physical change

E.g. melting, boiling, grinding, etc.

14

Chemical change
*Results in a formation of __ __ also called __.

a process that DOES change the identity of the substance under observation (formation of a new compound) → also called REACTIONS

15

Examples of chemical change

E.g. rusting, tarnishing, burning, etc.

16

Specific Heat

amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1℃

17

Conductors

have LOW specific heat, metals

18

Insulators

have HIGH specific heat, nonmetals

19

“Burning calories”

food is burned in a calorimeter to determine their energy values

20

Atomic radius

a length equal to half the distance between the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms

21

Ionic radius

the distance from the nucleus to the outermost e- of an ion

22

Cation
*Size?

a positively charged ion of a metal
*Cations are much smaller

23

Anion
*Size?

a negatively charged ion
*Anions are somewhat larger

24

Ionic bonding

the attraction between positive and negative ions in an ionic compound

25

Covalent bonding

holds the shared atoms together and forms a molecule

26

Ionic Formulas

Ionic compounds are composed of ions. If you know the ions that make up the compound, you can write the formula (formula unit). DROP, SWAP, REDUCE

27

Molecular Formulas

Covalent molecules are composed of neutral atoms, not ions. To write the molecular formula you need to know the name of the molecule

28

Oxidizing agent (oxidant)
*The species that’s being oxidized/reduced

The species in a reaction that causes another one to be oxidized
*The species that’s being reduced

29

Reducing agent (reductant)
*The species that’s being oxidized/reduced

The species in a reaction that causes another one to be reduced
*The species that’s being oxidized

30

Typically an individual element is __

An individual species (reactant) is the __

Typically an individual element is oxidized/reduced

An individual species (reactant) is the oxidant/reductant