Unit 4: Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Questions Deck (49)
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1

Acid formula begins with:

H+
(e.g. HCl, HF, H2S, HNO3, H3PO4, etc.)

2

Base formulas are usually _ compounds that contain _.

ionic, hydroxide
(e.g. NaOH, Ba(OH)2, NH3, etc.)

3

In aqueous solutions acids (gain/lose) H+?

lose H+

4

In aqueous solutions bases USUALLY dissociate into _ + _ ions?
Bases ALWAYS acquire _ in rxns?

metal + OH- ions
H+

5

Constants for acids Ka:

[H2PO4-] [H3O+]/
[H3PO4]

6

Constants for bases Kb:

[NH2OH]/
[NH3]

7

Ionization definition

convert (atom, molecule, or substance) into an ion or ions typically by removing one or more electrons

8

Ka is >1: (strongly/weakly) acidic, (high/low) % ionization

strongly acidic, high % ionization

9

Ka is <1: (strongly/weakly) acidic, (high/low) % ionization

weakly acidic, low % ionization

10

(high/low) Kb= strong base?

high

11

(high/low) Kb= weak base?

low

12

Properties of acids: (1)
Touch sensation:
Litmus: turns _ paper _
Tastes:

Electrolytes
Sting and burn
Litmus: turns blue paper red
Sour (function of tongue)

13

Properties of bases: (1)
Touch:
Litmus: turns _ paper _
Tastes:

Electrolytes
Slippery (still very damaging)
Litmus: turns red paper blue
Bitter

14

If the first atom is (_ color) = acid

yellow

15

Naming Binary acids

"hydro-(anion)-ic acid"

16

Naming Polyatomic acids
"ite" =
"ate" =

"ite" = "(polyatomic name)-ous acid"
"ate" = "(polyatomic name)-ic acid"

17

Naming Sulfur (exceptions)
Binary=
"ite" =
"ate" =

Binary = Hydrosulfuric acid
"ite" = sulfurous acid
"ate" = sulfuric acid

18

Naming Phosphorus (exceptions)
Binary=
"ite"=
"ate"=

Binary = hydrophosphoric acid
"ite" =phosphorous acid
"ate" = phosphoric acid

19

Acids ALWAYS react with water to produce _

hydronium ion (H3O+)

20

Hydronium ion

H3O+

21

What ion makes and acid an acid

Hydronium (H3O+)

22

What ion makes MOST bases a base

hydroxide (OH)

23

Most bases are ionic compounds, and MUST be (soluble/insoluble)

Soluble

24

When bases are added to water it _

Dissociates

25

Some bases react with water to PRODUCE _

(an) ionic compound(s)

26

Strong species (acids/bases) ionize nearly _% (>_%)

100% (>95%)

27

Weak species ionize _% remains and

<5%
So >95% remains and <5% is broken up

28

Strong Acids (7)
Weak acids=

1. HNO3
2. H2SO4
3. HCLO4
4. HCLO3
5. HCL
6. HBr
7. HI
Weak acids= all other acids

29

Strong Bases (5)
Weak bases=

1. LiOH
2. NaOH
3. KOH
4. RbOH
5. CsOH
Weak bases= NH3, and all other bases

30

The only soluble metal hydroxides (3)

1. Ca(OH)2
2. Sr(OH)2
3. Ba(OH)2