# Fire safety Flashcards

1
Q

What is the definition for means of escape

A

Structural means that provide one or more safe routes for people to go, during a fire, from any point in the building to a place of safety

2
Q

What is a protected escape route

A

The route along which people can escape from any point in a building to a final exit

3
Q

When are protected corridors required

A

Corridors serving bedrooms, Dead end, shared by two or more occupants

4
Q

What is a final exit

A

The end of an escape route from a building that gives direct access to a street, passageway, walkway or open space, and is sited to ensure that people rapidly disperse away from the building so that they are no longer in danger from fire and/or smoke.

5
Q

How do you calculate the width of a final exit

A

BS 9999 & Approved Document B have a merging flow formula to calculate the width the final exit taking into consideration number of people served by ground floor storey exit and stair width.

6
Q

What are some typical travel distances

A

Residential one direction = 9m, multiple direction = 18m

Office, shops and commercial one direction = 18m, multiple direction = 45m

7
Q

what do travel distances take into account

A

travel distances in Approved Document B take into account; number of directions, use of the premisis and normal or high hazard rating (exclusive to industrial buildings)

8
Q

How does the RRO 2005 describe escape lighting

A

‘emergency routes and exits requiring illumination must be provided with emergency lighting of adequate intensity in the case of failure of their normal lighting

9
Q

What is the difference between emergency lighting and emergency escape lighting

A

Emergency lighting this comes on when power supply to a normal lighting system fails.

```Emergency escape lighting is required in specific locations such as Exit doors
Any escape routes
Intersections of the corridors
Outside exits
External escape routes```
10
Q

What 3 things are required to sustain a fire

A
• Heat
• Oxygen
• Fuel
11
Q

What are the four stages of a fire

A
• Incipient
• Growth
• Fully developed
• Decay
12
Q

At what temperature does an Intumescant product activate

A

Activated typically between 200-250°C

13
Q

What are the duties of a responsible person under the RRO 2005

A
• Undertaking risk assessments
• Taking fire precautions to ensure the safety of employees and premises.
• Eliminating or reducing risks from dangerous substances.
• Providing information and training to employees.
• Providing information to employers from outside organisations and the self employed.
• Co-operating and co-ordinating with other responsible persons.
14
Q

What must a Competent Person do under the RRO 2005

A
• Understand the relevant fire safety legislation and the associated guidance documents
• Have appropriate education, training, knowledge and experience in the principles of fire safety
• Have an understanding of fire development and the behaviour of people in fire; understand the fire hazards, fire risks and relevant factors associated with occupants at special risk within buildings of the type in question;
• Have appropriate training and/or experience in carrying out fire risk assessments
15
Q

What is a Relevant Person under th RRO 2005

A

The relevant person refers to any person, including responsible and competent persons, who are or may be on the premises and any person in the immediate vicinity of the premises who is at risk from a fire on the premises.

16
Q

What types of buildings do the RRO 2005 apply to

A

it applies to: offices and shops; premises that provide care, including care homes and hospitals; community halls, places of worship and other community premises; the shared areas of properties several households live in; pubs, clubs and restaurants; schools and sports centres; tents and marquees; hotels and hostels; and factories and warehouses.

17
Q

What types of building do the RRO 2005 not apply to

A

It does not apply to people’s private homes, including individual flats in a block or house.

18
Q

What does the RRO stand for

A

Regulatory Reform Order (Fire Safety) 2005

19
Q

What is a catagory P fire alarm system

A

“Property protection system”
P1 - Protects they whole building
P2 - Installed in defined parts of the building only

20
Q

What is a catagory L fire alarm system

A

“Life protection system”
L1 - Automatic Fire Detection to be installed into all areas of a building.
L2 - Same as L3 as well as high risk or hazardous areas effecting escape routes.
L3 - Automatic Fire Detection with smoke detection should be installed on escape routes with detection in rooms opening onto escape routes.
L4 - Automatic Fire Detection within escape routes only.
L5 - Automatic Fire Detection a specific risk that has been identified.

21
Q

What is a catagory M fire alarm system

A

M Fire Alarm System is a manual operation only system which has call points on all exits as well as corridors where persons are not expected to walk any more than 45m to operate one. All categories of life protection will have a type M system installed.

22
Q

What are the fire classification of materials

A

A1 - Noncombustable e.g. Stonework
A2 - Limited combustability e.g. A1 with organic coating
B - Comustable e.g. foams
C - F - Comustable e.g. PIR, PUR
NPD - no proformance considered to be combustable

23
Q

What are the characteristics “s” and “d” in relation to the fire classification of materials

A
```s1 = Weak or no smoke
s2 = Medium smoke
s3 = High smoke
d0 = No dripping at all
d1 = Slow dripping recorded
d2 = High dripping recorded```
24
Q

What are the potential issue with Euroclass 0 material

A

Class 0 only checks the spread of flame over the surface. A Class 0 material could be a

25
Q

At what height is a building prohibited from having combustible cladding

A

A Floor Level Above 18m. This is expected to be reduced in the next few years

26
Q

What do the BS476 fire tests consist of

A

Combustibility test, ignitability test, flame spread, calorific value, smoke release, burning droplets.

27
Q

What governs fire saftey in the UK

A

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 covers general fire safety in England and Wales.

There are 3 ways you can demonstrate compliance;

BS 9999: Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings.

Approved Document B (Fire Safety)

Fire engineering solutions

28
Q

What is BS 9999

A

BS 9999: Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings. Origionally published in 2008, when it part-superseded BS 5588.

29
Q

How can you protect steel from fire

A
```Thin film intumescent coatings
Off site applied intumescent coatings
Thick film intumescent coatings
Boards
Sprays
Flexible blanket systems
Concrete encasement```
30
Q

What are Thin film intumescent coatings

A

Thin film intumescent coating systems generally have three components, a primer, a basecoat (the part which reacts in the fire) and a sealer coat. Typical expansion ratios are about 50:1.

31
Q

What are Off site applied intumescent coatings

A
```Thin film intumescent coatings applied in a factory rather than on site. The benifits include;
Quicker construction
Improved quality control
Reduction in site disruption
Cleaner sites
Improved site safety
Easier servicing installation.```

Disadvantages are; damaged during transportation, fixing and alterations.

32
Q

How can you test how thick a intumescent coating is

A

with a dry film thickness gauge

33
Q

What are Thick film intumescent coatings

A

Thick film intumescent coatings are usually epoxy based and typically have a much higher dry film thickness than thin film alternatives. These materials are tough and durable. Expansion ratios for thick film intumescents are much lower than for thin film materials, typically about 5:1.

34
Q

What are fire boards

A

Boards are widely used for structural fire protection in the UK. Lightweight boards are typically 150-250kg/m³. Heavyweight boards are usually in the range 700-950kg/m³. Some examples of fire boarding is;
Gyproc,
Masterboard,
vermiculite.

35
Q

What are fire Sprays

A

Spray protection is extensively used in the United States but is less common in the United Kingdom. It has the advantage that it can be used to cover complex shapes and details and also that costs do not increase significantly with increases in protection thickness.

36
Q

What are Flexible blanket systems

A

Flexible fire protection systems have been developed as a response to the need for an easily applied fire protection material which can be used on complex shapes and details but where application is a dry trade. There are a limited number of manufacturers of these products

37
Q

What is Concrete encasement of steel

A

Until the late 1970s, concrete was by far the most common form of fire protection for structural steelwork.. Some disadvantages are;
Cost - compared to lightweight systems;
Space utilisation - large protection thicknesses take up valuable space around columns
Weight.

38
Q

What are fire dampers

A

Fire dampers are installed in the ducts of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems which penetrate fire-resistant constructions and will automatically close on the detection of heat.

39
Q

How does a fire damper work

A

Typically, a thermal element will melt and allow springs to close the damper, which will stop the fire from migrating into an adjoining compartment.

40
Q

What are the types of fire dampers

A

There are three main types of fire dampers:
Curtain fire dampers which include a folded curtain held at the top by a thermal element.
Intumescent fire dampers which contain elements that expand when heated.
Single and multi-blade fire dampers which pivot when released.

41
Q

What is a fire riser

A

risers are used to supply water within buildings for firefighting purposes. The provision of a built-in water distribution system means that firefighters do not need to create their own distribution system in order to fight a fire and avoids the breaching of fire compartments by running hose lines between them.

Risers are either wet or dry.

42
Q

What is the difference between a wet and a dry riser

A

Wet Riser - Wet risers are charged with water from a pressurised supply, often pumped from a storage tank, with landing valves at specified locations on each floor.

Dry Riser - Dry risers do not contain water when they are not being used, but are charged with water by fire service pumping appliances when necessary.

43
Q

How is a riser designed

A

The three elements of the riser system, namely the external inlet, the pipework and the internal outlets should be designed to meet BS 5041 BS 5306, BS 9990 and Building Approval Regulations.

44
Q

What is a fire hydrant

A

Hydrants are located in the ground. Yellow “H” hydrant signs indicate the location of the hydrants. The sign indicates the hydrant is 100 mm in diameter, 1 metre from the sign. A stand pipe is required to be attached in order to access the supply.

45
Q

What are the types of sprinkler system

A

Wet pipe systems
Wet pipe system with antifreeze
Dry pipe system
Deluge systems

46
Q

What is a wet pipe sprinkler system

A

Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most common type used today. In a wet pipe system, water is constantly maintained throughout the pipes. Upon sprinkler activation, water is immediately discharged from the activated sprinkler head.

47
Q

A

Advantages include: Relatively low system installation and maintenance costs, Ease of modification, The system is the most reliable of all of the sprinkler systems, Short down time following a fire.

Disadvantages include: Wet pipe systems are not suited for sub-freezing environments, if the pipe leaks it can cause damage to the property.

48
Q

What is a Wet pipe sprinkler system with antifreeze

A

A solution of a water and an active antifreeze ingredient is flooded into wet pipe systems to keep the water from freezing. The issue with antifreeze is that they are flammable. The National Fire Protection Association stupilates that only pre-mixed solutions with maximum concentrations by volume should be used.

49
Q

What are some alternatives to antifreeze sprinkler system

A

If the pipe is exposed to cold temperatures some alternative can be considered such as; Pipe lagging, Heat tracing system or dry sprinkler system.

50
Q

What is a dry pipe sprinkler system

A

A Dry Pipe System consist of pipes that contain pressurized air instead of water. Then there is a check valve that holds the water supply back from the pipes. A fire sprinkler head is then triggered when it is heated to temperature. This vents the air from the fire sprinkler head through the fire sprinkler pipe.

51
Q

A

Advantages include: Pipes are not at risk of freezing, If a pipe leaks propery is not damaged this is particularily useful in historic buildings,

Disadvantages include: Lower design flexibility, Increased corrosion potential due to residual water collecting in piping low spots. Increased fire response time as the water is take time to get to the sprinkler head. Higher installation cost due to the complexity of the design.

52
Q

What is a Deluge sprinkler systems

A

A deluge fire protection system has unpressurized dry piping and open sprinkler heads. The system is directly connected to a water supply and when the system is activated, a deluge valve will release the water.

Deluge systems are used in places that are considered high hazard areas such as power plants, aircraft hangars and chemical storage or processing facilities.

53
Q

What are some advantages to BS:9999

A

Bespoke - It considers; use, users, management and building contents to deliver a bespoke approach.

Raises alarm - The focus on active measures decreases the time in which it takes to detect a fire and raise the alarm.

Focus - BS9999 has more of a focus on life preservation rather than property protection.

54
Q

What are some disadvantages to BS:9999

A

Bespoke - assumptions are made if the end-user is not known at the design stage.

Understanding - It does not always improve on Part B e.g. travel distances for shops are reduced in a single direction from 18m - 16m.

Not applicable to; Hospitals, schools, prisons or existing buildings

55
Q

What are some alternatives to BS:9999 and Part B

A

Hospitals - HTM & HBN

Schools - Building bulletin 100

56
Q

What is Regulation 38

A

It requires responsible persons to pass on documentation relating to fire safety including but not limited to;

• Escape
• Fire Doors
• RE management
57
Q

What did the Fire Safety Bill 2020 amend in the RRO

A

Clarifications of the duty holders

Reduced fire risk to structures including cladding, balconies, windows and doors

58
Q

What is VESDA

A

Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus. Typically these systems continually draw in air to detect hazardous/combustible gases

59
Q

What are some common causes of fire

A
```Dangerous substances and explosive atmospheres  HSE Approved Code of Practice indicates various sources;
Flames;
Direct fired space and process heating;
Use of cigarettes/matches etc;
Cutting and welding flames;
Hot surfaces;
Heated process vessels such as dryers and furnaces;
Hot process vessels;
Space heating equipment;
Mechanical machinery;
Electrical equipment and lights
Spontaneous heating;
Friction heating or sparks;
Impact sparks;
Sparks from electrical equipment;
Stray currents from electrical equipment
Electrostatic discharge sparks:
Lightning strikes.
60
Q

What are some recent changes to the RRO

A

Fire Safety Order 2005 to clarify that the responsible person or duty-holder for multi-occupied, residential buildings must manage and reduce the risk of fire for:

The structure and external walls of the building, including cladding, balconies and windows.
Entrance doors to individual flats that open into common parts.

March 2021, the Government announced plans to issue unlimited fines to anyone caught obstructing or impersonating a fire inspector as well as to those who breach fire safety regulations under the Fire Safety Order.

61
Q

What is BS476

A

The BS 476 suite of standards dictates the appropriate fire tests for elements of structure and materials

62
Q

What is PAS 9980:2022

A

It provides a methodology for appraising and assessing the scope for, and risk from, fire spread via external wall construction and cladding on existing blocks of flats.

63
Q

What are some proposed changes to Fire Safety

A

The introduction of BS9991 which introduces new provisions such as evacuation lifts, identifies stay put may propose a greater risk and the introduction of evacuation alerts on buildings over 18m if the fire plan fails.

64
Q

What is the RRO

A

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 – the Fire Safety Order – provides a framework for regulating fire safety in all non-domestic premises including workplaces and the parts of multi-occupied residential buildings used in common in England and Wales