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Flashcards in First 2 weeks Deck (29):
1

Bitters designation based on what?

physiologic function and taste rather than on chemical structure

2

Physiologic response to bitters?

Taste receptors: TAS2R (T2Rs)
Increases saliva, stimulates gastrin and HCl secretion, increase in pancreatic enzymes, release of bile, stimulates peristalsis
stimulate GI incretin hormones and helps to regulate appetite

3

Where are bitter receptors located?

tongue, colon, lungs, blood vessels, kidney, CNS, small intestine

4

Bitters dosage?

5-10 drops in an ounce of water, sipped slowly over 15 minutes before the meal

5

Bitters indications?

~anorexia/geriatric patients to stimulate appetite
~hypochlorhydria, dyspepsia, gas and bloating, parasites, food allergies, malabsorption syndromes, rheumatic or autoimmune conditions, acne rosacea by increasing digestive secretions
~GI conditions
~type II diabetes and dysglycemia due to supportive influence on blood sugars

6

Condition counter-indicated to use bittters

acute hyperacidic gastritis

7

Gentiana lutea

gentian

8

What are the medicinal actions of Gentiana lutea?

a bitter=gastric stimulant
cholagogue
anti-microbial

9

What are the constituents of gentiana lutea?

iridoid (anti-inflammatory)

10

What is the medicinal use of gentiana lutea?

most indicated in conditions of poor, sluggish digestion (bloating, fullness after eating, pain) impaired appetite, anemia (increases Fe absorption), and malabsorption
it is used in the treatment of SIBO too
Is also a strong producer of saliva and treats dry mouth

11

Contraindications for gentiana lutea?

pregnancy, excess hydrochloric acid production, weak constitutions with nervous system irritability (ulcer patient)

12

Lactuca virosa

wild lettuce

13

Constituents of Lactuca virosa?

lactucin

14

Medicinal action of lactuca virosa?

bitter, nervine

15

Medicinal uses of lactuca virosa?

non-constipating calmative, fairly sedative

16

Mentha piperita

peppermint

17

Mentha spicata

spearmint

18

Constituents of mentha piperita?

volatile oil, rosmarinic acid

19

Mechanism of action of mentha piperita?

chemically triggers cold-sensitive receptors in the skin, causes muscle relaxation by a blockage of calcium influx into the myocyte
does not cause actual drop in temperature

20

Medicinal action of mentha piperita?

spasmolytic
carminative
cholagogue
cholaretic

21

Medicinal uses of mentha piperita?

dyspepsia
colic
IBS (enteric coated peppermint oil shown to benefit people with IBS)
liver and gallbladder complaints
headache (topically)
mentha spicata has been studied to recude androgens in PCOS as a tea

22

Contraindications of mentha piperita?

oil should not be used on the faces of small children or infants, and not on feet due to seizures reported
oil too strong for <6yo

23

Zingiber officinalis

ginger

24

Constituents of zingiber officinalis?

pungent principles (gingerols)
fresh rhizome has more than dried which has more shogaols

25

Mechanism of action of zingiber officinalis?

~inhibition of prostaglandin (COX-2), leukotriene (5LOX) and thromboxane synthesis, inhibits IL1alpha and beta, TNF alpha
~inhibition of platelet aggregation through inhibition of thromboxane and reduced platelet lipid peroxide formation
~inhibits substance P
~can act on TRVP channels, transient receptor potential superfamily of ion channels acting in the neurologic system

26

Medical actions of zingiber officinalis?

carminative, anti-emetic, stimulant, anti inflammatory, diaphoretic

27

Medicinal use of zingiber officinalis?

~GI conditions: improves gi motility while exerting antispasmodic effect
~gynecological conditions: relieves intensity and duration of pain in primary dysmenorrhea, also shown to reduce menorrhagia
~Inflammatory conditions: rheumatoid and oseoarthritis, migraine headaches, low dose 5-LOX inhibition, high dose COX-2 inhibition
~metabolic: human patients receiving 1g TID had reduced HbA1c and fasting blood sugar
~cardiovascular conditions

28

Drug interactions of zingiber officinalis?

decreases vomiting caused by cyclophosphamide
may enhance the action of anticoagulant

29

Contraindications of zingiber officinalis?

sensitive stomachs don't always tolerate
high blood pressure