First Aid Classic Labs/Findings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in First Aid Classic Labs/Findings Deck (115):
1

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

2

Anti-desmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

3

Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

4

Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE (e.g. hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)

5

Anti-IgG antibodies

RA (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)

6

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

7

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Microscopic polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) (MPO-ANCA/pANCA); granulomatosis with polyangiitis (wegener; PR3-ANCA/cANCA)

8

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs; anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type 3 hypersensitivity)

9

Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

10

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

11

Anti-transglutaminase/anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, weight loss)

12

"Apple core" lesion on barium enema X Ray

Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

13

Atypical lymphocytes

EBV

14

Azurophilic peroxidase (+) granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts

Auer Rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic M3 type)

15

Bacitracin response

Sensitive: S.pyogenes (groupA); resistant: S.agalactiae (group B)

16

"Bamboo spine" on XR

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis HLA-B27)

17

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

18

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

19

Bloody or yellow tap on lumbar puncture

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

20

"Boot-shaped" heart on XR

Tetralogy of Fallot (due to RVH)

21

Branching gram (+) rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

22

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging

Pancoast tumor (can compress cervical sympathetic chain and cause Horner syndrome)

23

"Brown" tumor of bone

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (depositied hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)

24

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

25

Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule

rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

26

"Chocolate cyst" of ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

27

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma)

28

Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene leads to fat soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

29

Low AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality

30

Degeneration of dorsal column fibers

Tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal, spinocerebeller tracts affected)

31

"delta wave" on EKG, short PR interval, supraventricular tachcardia

Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome (Bundle of Kent bypasses AV node)

32

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson Disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia

33

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

34

Disarryed granulosa cells arranged around collections of eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa cell tumor of the ovary)

35

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with "raisinoid" nuclei and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)

36

Electrical alternans (alternating amplitude in EKG)

Pericardial tamponade

37

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

"Owl eye" appearance of CMV

38

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei with central clearing

"Orphan Annie" eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

39

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei with central clearing

"Orphan Annie" eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

40

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell

Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)

41

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy body (parkinson disease)

42

Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (viral hepatitis, yellow fever), represents hepatocyte undergoing apoptosis

43

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal and cerebellar neurons

Negri bodies of rabies

44

Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer disease)

45

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma)

46

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

47

"Hair on end" ("Crew-cut") appearance on XR

Beta-Thalassemia, sickle cell disease (marrow expansion)

48

hCG elevated

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)

49

Heart nodules (granulomatous)

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

50

Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

51

Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)

52

High levels of D-Dimers

DVT, PE, DIC

53

Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle of lower lung lobes (can calcify)

Ghon complex (primary TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

54

"Honeycomb sign" on XR or CT

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

55

Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)

Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)

56

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neuro symptoms)

57

HTN, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

Conn syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism)

58

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal hemoglobin sometimes present)

59

Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

60

Increased uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

61

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or VZV)

62

Iron-containing nodules in alveolar sputum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestos: higher chance of mesothelioma)

63

Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

64

Large granules in phagocytes, immunodeficiency

Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

65

"Lead Pipe" appearance of colon on abdominal imaging

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

66

Linear apperance of IgG deposition on glomerular and alveolar basement membranes

Goodpasture syndrome

67

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration

68

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration

69

"Lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (due to deposition of IgG, IgM, and C3)

70

Lytic ("punched out") bone lesions on XR

Multiple myeloma

71

Mammary gland ("blue domed") cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

72

Monoclonal antibody spike

Multiple Myeloma (usually IgG or IgA)

Monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (MGUS consequence of aging)

Walderstrom (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia

Primary amyloidosis

73

Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus

"Signet ring" (gastric carcinoma)

74

Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium XR

"string sign" (Crohn disease)

75

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)

Goodpasture syndrome (anti-basement membrane antibodies)

76

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)

Goodpasture syndrome (anti-basement membrane antibodies)

77

Needle shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

78

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

79

Novobiocin response

Sensitive: S.epidermidis

Resistant: S. saprophyticus

80

"Nutmeg" appearance of liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure or Budd-Chiari syndrome

81

"Onion skin" appearance of liver

Ewing sarcoma (malignant small blue cell tumor)

82

Optochin response

Sensitive: S. pneumoniae

Resistant: viridans streptococci - S. mutans, S. sanguis

83

Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area

Codman triangle on XR, Ewing sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis

84

Podocyte fusion or "effacement" on electron microscopy

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

85

Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

86

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies (Pick disease)

87

Psammoma bodies

Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary

88

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

89

RBC casts in urine

Glomerulonephritis

90

Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

91

Recurrent infections, eczema, thrombocytopenia

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

92

Renal epithelial casts in urine

intrinsic renal failure (ischemia or toxic injury)

93

Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophospate dihydrate crystals)

94

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

95

Ring-enhancing brain lesion in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

96

Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophages ("starry sky" histology)

Burkitt lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; "starry sky" made up of malignant cells)

97

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)

98

"Soap bubble" on femur or tibia on XR

Giant cell tumor (generally benign)

99

"Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits

Membranous nephropathy (nephrotic syndrome)

100

Stacks of RBCs

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

101

"Steeple sign" on CXR

Croup (parainfluenza virus)

102

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

"Clue cells" (Gardnerella vaginalis)

103

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia

Colon cancer

104

"Tennis racket" shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)

105

Thousands of polyps on colonoscopy

Familial adenomatous polyposis (autosomal dominant, mutation of APC gene)

106

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

107

"Thumb sign" on lateral neck XR

Epiglottitis (H. flu)

108

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic pyelonephritis (usually due to recurrent infections)

109

"tram-track" apperance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

110

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

111

"Waxy" casts with very low urine flow

Chronic end-stage renal disease

112

WBC casts in urine

Acute pyelonephritis

113

WBCs that look "smudged"

CLL (almost always B cell)

114

"Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy

Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (usually seen with lupus)

115

Yellowish CSF

Xanthochromia (e.g. due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)