First Aid Key Associations Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1. > First Aid Key Associations > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid Key Associations Deck (134):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (higher ICP stimulates vagal gastric H+ secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn Disease)

5

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal

Atherosclerosis

6

Aortic aneurysm, ascending or arch

Tertiary syphilis (syphilic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

7

Aortic aneurysm, thoracic

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

8

Aortic dissection

HTN

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle Cell Disease (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

S. pneumoniae

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B strep/E Coli (newborns)

S pneumoniae/N Meninitidis (kids/teens)

14

Bilateral ovarian metastases from gastric carcinoma

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet ring cells)

15

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis, astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme), meningioma, schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or

Supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

18

Breast cancer

Invasive ductal carcinoma

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac primary tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Marantic/thrombotic endocarditis (nonbacterial)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, myxoma (90% in Left atrium; "ball and valve")

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari II malformation

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

28

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

29

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

30

Congenital conjugated hyperbillirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

31

Constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world)

Idiopathic, viral illness (developed world)

32

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD>RCA>circumflex

33

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/congenital hypothyroidism

34

Cushing syndrome

Iatrogenic (from corticosteroid therapy)

Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)

ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease)

Paraneoplastic (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)

35

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

36

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

37

Death in CML

Blast crisis

38

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

39

Dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts (vascular dementia)

40

Demyelinating disease in young women

MS

41

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

42

Dietary deficit

Iron

43

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by Ba swallow)

44

Ejection click

Aortic stenosis

45

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide)

Adenocarcinoma (US)

46

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

47

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

48

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in US)

Cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

49

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

50

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

51

Helminth infection (U.S.)

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

52

Hematoma - epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

53

Hematoma - subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

54

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in heart failure, "bronze diabetes," and higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

55

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with Hep B and C and with alcoholism)

56

hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

57

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbillirubinemia)

58

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis

59

HLA-DR3

Diabetes mellitus type 1, SLE, Graves, Hashimoto thyroiditis

60

HLA-DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, RA

61

Holosytolic murmer

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

62

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow triad (higher risk of thrombosis)

63

Hypertension, secondary

Renal disease

64

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66

Infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

67

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Catalase (+) organisms (S. aureus, E coli, Aspergillus)

68

Intellectual disability

Down syndrome, Fragile X

69

Kidney stones

Calcium = radiopaque

Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease positive organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus species, and S. saprophyticus)

Uric acid = radiolucent

70

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

71

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

72

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher disease

73

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

74

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin lymphoma

75

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, meduloblastoma (cerebellum)

76

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

77

Metastases to brain

Lung > breast > GU > melanoma > GI

78

Metastases to liver

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

79

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

80

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

81

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

82

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

83

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

85

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

86

Noscomial pneumonia

S. aureus, Pseudomonas, other enteric gram neg rods

87

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

88

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

89

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

90

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus (most common overall)

91

Osteomyelitis in Sickle cell disease

Salmonella

92

Osteomyelitis in IV drug use

Pseudomonas, Candida, S aureus

93

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

94

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

95

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

96

Pancreatitis (chronic)

alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

97

Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child

CLL: adult > 60

AML: adult ~ 65

CML: adult 45-85

98

Pelvic inflammatory disease

C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae

99

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (BCR-ABL)

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

100

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic adenoma

101

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45, XO)

102

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

103

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

104

Primary hyperparathryoidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

105

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, Wilson disease)

106

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

107

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

108

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking

Paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTHrP, ACTH)

109

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

110

S3 heart sound

higher ventricular filling pressure (e.g. mitral regurgitation, HF), common in dilated ventricles

111

S4 heart sound

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

112

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

113

Sexually transmitted disease

C.trachomatis (usually coinfected with N. gonorrhoeae)

114

SIADH

small cell carcinoma of the lung

115

Site of diverticula

sigmoid colon

116

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

117

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

118

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

119

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (BCL-2 activation, anti-apoptotic oncogene)

120

t(8;14)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc fusion, transcription factor oncogene)

121

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (BCR-ABL activation, tyrosine kinase oncogene)

122

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to occlusion of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

123

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

124

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

125

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependend, not precancerous)

126

Tumor in infancy

Strawberry hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

127

Tumor in adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

128

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

129

Type of Hodgkin lymphoma

Nodular sclerosing (vs mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

130

Type of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

131

UTI

E Coli, Staph saprophyticus (young women)

132

Vertebral compression fracture

Osteoporosis (type 1: postmenopausal women; type 2: elderly man or woman)

133

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

134

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)

Folate (pregnant women are at high-risk; body stores only 3 to 4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)