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Flashcards in FIrst Aid: Mood Disorders Deck (110)
1

What is another term for mood disorders?

affective disorders

2

Distinct period of time in which some abnormal mood is present.

Mood episode

3

List the 4 types of mood episodes.

-Major depressive episode
-Manic episode
-Mixed episode
-Hypomanic episode

4

When are 2 times you can see a major depressive episode?

-MDD
-Bipolar I/II disorder

5

Name the DSM IV criteria for a major depressive episode.

-Must have at least 5 of the 9 s/s of depression for at least a 2 week period and must include either depressed mood or anhedonia.
-Symptoms must cause social or occupational impairment.

6

Name the 9 s/s of depression.

-Depressed mood*
-SIGECAPS

7

List SIG E CAPS

Sleep disturbances (insomnia or hypersomnia)
Interest (anhedonia--lose interest in pleasurable activities)
Guilty or worthless feelings
Energy loss or fatigue
Concentration is diminished
Appetite or body weight changes
Psychomotor agitation or retardation
Suicidal thoughts (recurrent)

8

What is the likelihood for suicide in a pt who has been previously hospitalized for a major depressive episode?

15%

9

What is the DSM IV criteria for a manic episode?

-Period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting for at lease 1 week and including at least 3 of the s/s (4 if mood is irritable)
-Symptoms must cause social or occupational impairment

10

List the 7 s/s of mania.

DIGFAST
-Distractibility
-Insomnia (decreased need for sleep)
-Grandiosity (inflated self-esteem)
-Flight of ideas (racing thoughts)
-Activity is increased and goal directed (socially, at work, or sexually)
-Speech is pressured (rapid and uninterruptible) and pt is more talkative
-Thoughtlessness (excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have high risk for negative consequences)

11

What percentage of manic patients have psychotic symptoms?

75%

12

What is the criteria for a mixed episode?

-Criteria met for both manic and major depressive episode
-Criteria must be present nearly every day for at least 1 week

13

What is the predominant mood state in mixed episodes?

Irritability

14

What are the treatment options for mixed episodes?

-Poor response to lithium
-Anticonvulsants may help

15

What is the criteria for a hypomanic episode?

-Distinct period of elevated, expansive or irritable mood that includes at least 3 of the sympoms of mania (4 if mood is irritable)
-Does NOT caused marked impairment in social or occupational functioning

16

What is the time difference between diagnosing a manic v. hypomanic episode?

Mania- at least 7 days
Hypomania- at least 4 days

17

Which type of episode may have psychotic features, mania or hypomania?

mania (psychiatric emergency)

18

What are some medical causes of a manic episode?

-Hyperthyroidism
-MS
-Temporal lobe seizures
-Neoplasms
-HIV

19

What is the DSM-IV criteria for MDD?

-At least 1 major depressive episode
-No history of mania or hypomania

20

What is the subtype of MDD only present during winter months (fewer daylight hours)?

SAD (seasonal affective disorder)

21

How do you treat SAD?

Light Therapy

22

What are the triad of symptoms for SAD?

Irritability
Carbohydrate drawing
Hypersomnia

23

What is the lifetime prevalence of MDD?

15%

24

When is the average age of onset for MDD?

40 yo

25

Is MDD more common in women or men?

women 2X more common

26

What is the prevalence of MDD in the elderly?

25-50%

27

Name the 4 sleep problems associated with MDD.

-Multiple awakenings
-Initial and terminal insomnia (problems falling asleep and early AM wakening)
-Hypersomnia
-REM sleep shifted to earlier in night; stages 3 & 4 decreased

28

Low CSF levels of what chemicals are found in depressed patients?

- Serotonin
- 5-HIAA

29

Abnormal regulation of what receptors are seen in depressed patients?

Beta-adrenergic

30

What do drugs that alleviate symptoms of depression do?

Increase availability of serotonin, NE, and dopamine

31

What are cortisol levels like in depressed patients?

-High levels due to hyperactive HPA axis
-Fail to suppress cortisol levels in dexamethasone supression test

32

What sort of thyroid disorders do depressed patients get?

1/3 of MDD patients have blunted TSH response to TRH infusion

33

True or false: losing a parent before age 11 is associated with later development of MDD

true

34

True or false: stable family and social functioning have no implication on prognosis for MDD patients

FALSE- have good prognostic indication

35

If you have a first degree relative with MDD, what increased risk are you for also developing MDD?

2-3X more likely

36

How many depressed patients contemplate suicide?

around 2/3

37

How many depressed patients commit suicide?

10-15%

38

How long do untreated episodes of MDD last?

6-13 months (self limited)

39

True or false: the episodes of major depression in MDD patients occur more frequently as the disorder progresses

True

40

What is the risk of another major depressive episode within the first 2 years after having one?

50%

41

What percentage of MDD patients receive treatment?

50%

42

What percentage of MDD patients see success with medical therapy (antidepressants)?

75%

43

When do you admit a patient with MDD?

-SI
-HI
-Inability to care for self

44

How long do antidepressants take to work?

4-8 weeks

45

What are the safest and best tolerated class of antidepressants?

SSRIs

46

What are the major side effects of SSRIs?

-HA
-Gastrointestinal disturbance
-Sexual dysfunction
-Rebound anxiety

47

Which antidepressants are most lethal in overdose?

TCAs

48

What are the major side effects of TCAs?

-Sedation
-Weight gain
-Orthostatic hypotension
-Anticholinergic effects
-Aggrivation of prolonged QTC syndrome

49

Which antidepressant class are useful for refractory depression or "atypical depression"?

MAOIs

50

What is the major concern with MAOIs?

Hypertensive crisis with tyramine-rich roods (wine, beer, aged cheeses, liver, smoked meats) or sympathomimetics

51

What is tyramine?

Intermediate in conversion of tyrosine to NE

52

What is the most common side effect of MAOIs?

Orthostatic hypotension

53

Why do you not combine SSRIs and MAOIs?

Serotonin syndrome (autonomic instability, hyperthermia and seizures)

54

When would you use stimulants in MDD?

-Rarely (terminally ill or refractory depression)
-Potential for dependence limits use

55

What drugs help to convert antidepressant non-responders to responders?

-Liothyronine (T3)
-Levothyroxine (T4)
-Lithium
-L-tryptophan

56

What is L-tryptophan?

serotonin precursor

57

Which patients may not be able to tolerate antidepressant SEs?

elderly
pregnant women

58

When do you use ECT in MDD?

-Unresponsive to pharmacotherapy
-Cannot tolerate pharmacotherapy
-Rapid reduction of symptoms is desired (suicide risk)

59

How do you prepare a patient for ECT?

-Atropine
-General anesthesia
-Muscle relaxant

60

How are ECT seizures induced?

Passing current of electricity across the brain

61

How long do ECT seizures last?

less than 1 minute

62

What is the optimal treatment timeline with ECT?

-Around 8 treatments over a 2-3 week period
-Usually see improvement after 1 week

63

What is the most common SE of ECT?

retrograde amnesia (usually disappears within 6 months)

64

What percent of hospitalized patients with major depression are melancholic?

40-60%

65

List some features of melancholy.

-Anhedonia
-Early AM wakening
-Psychomotor disturbance
-Excessive guilt
-Anorexia

66

What type of depression has hypersomnia, hyperphagia, reactive mood, leaden paralysis and hypersensitivity to interpersonal rejection?

atypical

67

What type of depression (or bipolar) has immobility, purposeless motor activity, extreme negativism or mutism, bizarre postures, and echolalia?

catatonic

68

What percentage of hospitalized depressed patients have delusions or hallucinations (psychotic features)?

10-25%

69

How do you treat catatonic major depression?

antidepressants and antipsychotics concurrently

70

What is the DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar I Disorder?

Occurrence of one manic or mixed episode

71

What is another name for Bipolar I Disorder?

manic depression

72

Does a patient have to have episodes of major depression to be diagnosed with Bipolar I?

No

73

In bipolar I disorder, what commonly occurs between manic episodes?

-Euthymia
-Major depressive episodes
-Dysthymia
-Hypomanic episodes

74

What is the lifetime prevalence of bipolar I?

1%

75

When does bipolar I usually get diagnosed?

before age 30

76

If you have a 1st degree relative with bipolar I, how much more likely are you to develop it?

8 to 18X

77

How long do untreated manic episodes usually last?

around 3 months

78

What percentage of patients DO NOT have recurrence of symptoms after the 1st episode of mania in bipolar I?

7%

79

Which has a worse prognosis, MDD or bipolar?

bipolar

80

What percentage of lithium treated patients show significant improvement in bipolar I symptoms?

50-60%

81

What is "rapid cycling"?

occurence of 4 or more episodes of major depression, mania or mixed in 1 year

82

How do you treat bipolar I?

-Lithium (mood stabilizer)
-Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine or valproate)
-Olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic)

83

What are anticonvulsants especially good for in bipolar I?

rapid cycling and mixed episodes

84

What role does ECT play in bipolar I?

-Treatment of manic episodes
-Requires more treatments than for depression

85

List some side effects of lithium.

-Weight gain
-Tremor
-GI disturbances
-Fatigue
-Arrhythmias
-Seizures
-Goiter/hypothyroidism
-Leukocytosis (benign)
-Coma
-Polyuria
-Polydipsia
-Alopecia
-Metallic taste

86

What is another name for bipolar II?

recurrent major depressive episodes with hypomania

87

What is the DSM-IV criteria for bipolar II?

-1 or more major depressive episode and at least 1 hypomanic episode
-NO h/o full manic episodes (this would be bipolar I)

88

What is the lifetime prevalence of bipolar II?

0.5%

89

What gender more commonly gets bipolar (I and II)?

I- equal
II- women slightly more

90

When is bipolar II usually diagnosed?

usually before age 30

91

What is the prognosis for bipolar II?

chronic, requires long term treatment

92

How do you treat bipolar II?

same as bipolar I

93

What is the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosing dysthymic disorder?

-Depressed mood for majority of time of most days for at least 2 years (in children for at least 1 year)
-At least 2 of the s/s
-During the 2 year period no major depressive epsiodes and no absence of s/s for >2 months at a time
-NO h/o manic or hypomanic episodes
-NO psychotic features

94

What are the S/S of dysthymic disorder?

CHASES
-poor Concentration or difficulty making decisions
-Hopelessness
-Appetite is poor or overeating
-Sleep disturbed (insomnia or hypersomnia)
-Energy is low (fatigue)
-Self-esteem is low

95

What are the "2 D's" of dysthymic disorder?

-2 years of depression
-2 listed criteria
-Never asymptomatic for >2 months

96

What is the lifetime prevalence of dysthymic disorder?

6%

97

What gender more commonly gets dysthymia?

women 2-3X more common

98

What age do most people present with dysthymia?

50% before age 25

99

What is a major difference between dysthymic disorder and MDD?

dysthymic disorder is persistent (chronic mild depression with no discrete episodes) usually and MDD is episodic

100

What is the prognosis for dysthymic disroder?

-20% get major depression
-20% get bipolar disorder
->25% have life-long symptoms

101

What is the most effective treatment for dysthymia?

-Cognitive therapy and insight oriented psychotherapy
-Antidepressants when used concurrently

102

What is cyclothymic disorder?

alternating periods of hypomania and periods with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

103

What is the DSM-IV criteria for cyclothymic disorder?

-Numerous periods with hypomania symptoms and periods with depressive symptoms for at least 2 years
-Person must never have been symptom free for >2 months in those 2 years
-No h/o major depressive episode or manic episode

104

What is the lifetime prevalence of cyclothymic disorder?

less than 1%

105

What personality disorder may exist with cyclothymic disorder?

Borderline Personality disorder

106

What is the average age of onset for cyclothymic disorder?

15-25

107

What is the prognosis for cyclothymic disorder?

-1/3 eventually diagnosed with bipolar disorder

108

How do you treat cyclothymic disorder?

Antimanic agents used to treat bipolar disorder

109

What is minor depressive disorder?

Episodes of depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for MDD

110

How do minor depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder differ?

Minor depressive disorder has periods of euthymia