First Aid: Sleep Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in First Aid: Sleep Disorders Deck (60)
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1

What does elevated DA or NE do to sleep?

Decrease total sleep time

2

What does elevated Ach do to sleep?

increases total sleep time
increase proportion of REM sleep

3

What does elevated 5-HT do to sleep?

-increases total sleep time
-increased proportion of delta wave sleep

4

What is a primary sleep disorder?

NOT due to another medical condition or substance use

5

What is a secondary sleep disorder?

due to another medical condition or substance use

6

What is the word for disturbances in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep?

dyssomnias

7

What is the word for abnormal events in behavior or physiology during sleep?

parasomnias

8

What percent of sleep is REM?

25%

9

What type of EEG wave is seen in those with eyes closed and person awake?

alpha waves (only in 88% of people)

10

What EEG changes are seen in stage 1 sleep?

loss of alpha waves

11

What EEG changes are seen in stage 2 sleep?

sleep spindles
k-complexes

12

What EEG changes are seen in stage 3-4 sleep?

delta waves (low frequence)

13

What is the most restorative stage of sleep?

3-4 (deep sleep)

14

What EEG changes are seen in REM sleep?

-Sawtooth waves
-Rapid eye movement

15

How long do REM cycles last?

10-40 mintues

16

When do REM cycles occur?

every 90 mintues

17

What occurs during REM sleep?

dreaming
lack of motor tone
erections

18

What happens to REM sleep as you age?

REM sleep decreases

19

What is REM rebound?

increase in amount of REM sleep that occurs after a night of sleep deprivation

20

When evaluating insomnia, what should you always ask?

daily caffeine intake

21

What is the diagnostic criteria for primary insomnia?

-Difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep
-Daytime drowsiness or difficulty fulfilling tasks
-Disturbance occurs 3 or more times per week for at least 1 month

22

What percent of the population has primary insomnia?

30%

23

What tends to exacerbate primary insomnia?

anxiety
preoccupation with getting enough sleep

24

What drugs can be used to treat primary insomnia?

Benadryl
Zolpidem (ambien)
Zaleplon
Trazodone

25

What is the diagnostic criteria for primary hypersomnia?

-At least 1 month of excessive daytime sleepiness or excessive sleep not attributable to medical condition (narcolepsy), medications, poor sleep hygiene, or insufficient sleep

26

When does primary hypersomnia typically start?

adolescence

27

What is the treatment for hypersomnia?

-Stimulant drugs (amphetamines)
-SSRIs

28

What is the criteria for diagnosing narcolepsy?

Repeated, sudden attacks of sleep in the daytime for at least 3 months, associated with:
-Cataplexy (in 70% of patients) associated with emotion like laughter
-Short REM latency
-Sleep paralysis (50% of patients)
-Hypnagogic (as you GO to sleep) or hypnopompic (as you POP up from bed) hallucinations

29

When does narcolepsy usually begin?

childhood or adolescence

30

Do people with narcolepsy get good sleep at night?

usually poor nighttime sleep