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Flashcards in First Religion quiz Deck (112):
1

aggadah

anecdotal or narrative material in the Talmud

2

apocalyptic

refers to the belief that the world is under the control of evil forces, but that God will intervene and defeat the powers of darkness at the end of time; from apocalypse, a greek term meaning unveiling. Apocalyptic literature flourished during the Hellenistic era.

3

ashkenazim

Jews of Central and Eastern European ancestry, as distinguisshed from Sephardim and Mizrahim.

4

baal shem tov

Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, the founder of Hasidism, also know as the Besht

5

bar mitzvah

son of the commandment; the title given to a 13-year old boy when he is initiated into adult ritual responsibilities; some branches of Judaism also celebrate a bat mitzvah for girls.

6

bris

the yiddish form of the Hebrew brit

7

brit

treaty or covenant in Hebrew; the special relationship between God and the Jewish people. Brit milah is the covenant of circumcision.

8

cantor

the liturgical specialist who leads the musical chants in synagogue series; haze in Hebrew.

9

diaspora

a collective term for Jews living outside the land of ancient Israel; from the Greek meaning 'dispersal.' The Diaspora began with the Babylonian Exile, from which not all Jews returned to Judea.

10

Documentary Hypothesis

the theory that the Pentateuch was not written by one person (Moses) but was compiled over a long period of time from multiple sources; proposed by the German scholar Julius Wellhausen in 188.

11

Exile

the deportation of Jewish leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the conquering Babylonians in 586 BCE; disrupting local Israelite political ritual, and agricultural institutions it marked the transition from Israelite religion to Judaism.

12

Exodus

the migration of Hebrews from Egypt under the leadership of Moses, understood in later Hebrew thought as marking the birth of the Israelite nation

13

Gaonim

the senior rabbinical authorities in Mesopotamia under Persian and Muslim rule; singular Gaon

14

Gemarah

the body of aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew test of the Mishnah, which together make up the Talmud ( both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud).

15

Haggadah

the liturgy for the ritual Passover dinner .

16

Halakhah

Material in the Talmud of legal nature; see also Aggadah

17

Haredim

a rigorously observant subgroup of Orthodox Judaism

18

Hasidism

Movement founded in Eastern Europe by the eighteenth-century mystic known as the Baal Shem Tov. Today the movement encompasses many subgroups each of which has its own charismatic leader, The Hasidim make up a significant part of Orthodox Judaism.

19

Haskalah

The Jewish Englightenment

20

Hebrew Bible

The sacred can of Jewish texts, know to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament.

21

Holocaust

the mass murder of approximately 6 million European Jews by the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler during the Second World War; from the Greek words meaning "whole" and "burnt." the Hebrew term is Shoah "catastrophe"

22

Israelites

the biblical people of Israel

23

Kabbalah

the medieval Jewish mystical tradition; its central text is a commentary on scripture called he zohar. which is thought to have been written by Moses of Leon but is attributed to Rabbi Shimon bar Yohai. a famous second-century rabbinic mystic and wonder-worker.

24

Karaites

"Scripturalists"; an eighth century anti-rabbinic movement that rejected the Talmud, takin only the Bible as authoritative

25

kippah

dome or cap; the Hebrew word for the skullcap that Jewish men wear; yarmulke

26

Ladino

a language composed mainly of Spanish and Hebrew, spoken by some Sephardic Jews.

27

Luria, Isaac

Influential Kabbalah scholar.

28

Maimonides, Moses

Latinized name of Moses ben Maimon, one of the most famous Jewish philosophers and legal scholars of the Islamic age, identified in religious texts as Rambam. (1135-1204)

29

menorah

the seven-branched oil lamp that has been a Jewish symbol since ancient times, well before the widespread adoption of the six-pointed stay; the one branched menorah used at Hanukkah is sometimes called a hannukiah.

30

kosher

term for food that is ritually acceptable, indicating that all rabbinic regulations regarding animal slaughter and the like she been observed in its preparation

31

messiah

from the Hebrew Mashiach, anointed one. The Greek translation is Christos, from which the English term Christ is derived

32

midrash

Rabbinic commentary on scripture

33

minyan

the quorum of ten required for a prayer service. In more rigorously observant synagogues, only adult males qualify; in more liberal synagogues adult women may also participate in the minyan.

34

mishnah

the oral law- inherited from pharisaism and ascribed to Moses- written down and codified by topic; edited by Rabbi Judah hanse around 220 CE, it has an authority paralleling that of the written Torah.

35

Mishneh Torah

A topically arranged code of Jewish law written in the twelfth century by Maimonides

36

mitzvah

a commandment in the Roman era, the rabbinic movement identified exactly 613 specific commandments contained within the Torah

37

mizrahim

Jews of Middle Eastern ancestry, as distinguish from Ashkenazim and Sephardim

38

mohel

a ritual circumciser

39

passover

rebirth, but came to commemorate the supposed liberation of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt under Moses' leadership major celebration of agricultural

40

Pentateuch

the Greek name fro the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity

41

phylacteries

the usual English term for tefillin

42

Purim

literally lots; the holiday commemorating the escape of the Jews of Persia from an evil plot of a Persian official name Haman, as described in the Book of Esther. Human used a lottery system to determine the date for the destruction oft he Jews. hence the name of this holiday.

43

rabbi

literally teacher, but by the second century CE the official title of an expert on the interpretation of Torah; once priestly sacrifices had ended with the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE, the rabbi became the scholarly and spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation.

44

rabbinic movement

legal teachers and leaders who inherited the teachings of the Pharisees and became the dominate voices in Judaism after the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE/

45

responsa

from the latin for answers' accumulated rulings on issues of legal interpretation issued by rabbinical authorities in response to questions from rabbis.

46

rosh hashanah

the new year festival, generally falling in September; the day when God is said to open the Book of Life in which he will inscribe the individual's fate for the year on Yom Kippur.

47

Sabbath

the seventh day of the week, observed since ancient times as a day of rest from ordinary activity

48

Seder

order; th term used for the ritual Passover dinner celebrated in the home; the six divisions of the Mishnah are also called orders or seders

49

Sephardim

Jews of Spanish-Portuguese ancestry, as distinguished form Ashkenazim and Mizrahim

50

Septuagint

the Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures, made in Alexandria during the Hellenistic period, beginning in the third century BCE

51

Shavuot

a one-day festival (two days in the Diaspora, except for Reform and Deconstructionist Jews) in late May or early June that celebrates the revelation of the Torah by God to Moses on Mount Sinai; also know as the Festival of Weeks for the seen weeks that separate the second day of Passover and the day before Shavuot

52

Shema

the oldest and most sacred fixed daily prayer in Judaism, found in Deuteronomy 6: 4-6, and 11: 13-21 and Numbers 15: 37-41. "Shame" is its first word.

53

Shoah

Catastrophe; the Hebrew term for th eHolocaust

54

Simchat Bat

the naming ceremony for girls that more liberal branches of Judaism have adopted as an equivalent to the Brit ceremony conducted for boys

55

Sukkot

the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths probably named for the temporary shelters that were constructed by farmers in autumn to protect their ripening crops and later given a historical interpretation commemorating the wanderings of the Israelites in the wilderness after Exodus.

56

Synagogue

From the Greek for "gathering together"; the local place of assembly for congregational worship, which became central to the tradition after the destruction of the Jerussalem Temple

57

tallit

shawl with fringes at the corners, worn for prayer; usually white with blue stripes

58

tanakh

the entire Hebrew Bible, consisting of Torah (Law), Nevi'im (Prophets), Ketuvim (Sacred writing); the name is an acronym of the initial letters of those three terms.

59

tefillin

small black leather boxes, also termed phylacteries, contain gin parchment scrolls on which the words of four paragraphs from the Torah are written. tie to the forehead and upper arm by leather thongs.

60

tetragrammaton

four letter word, the personal name of the jewish deity, consisting of the four Hebrew letters you, hay, fav, hay; conventionally written as Yaweh.

61

tikkun olam

restoration of the world: the Cabalistic concept, introduced by Isaac Luria, that the world can be restored through prayer, study, meditation, and the observance of commandments.

62

Tzaddik

righteous person, a title conveying the Hasidic ideal for a teacher or spiritual leader; plural Tzaddikim.

63

yarmulke

the Yiddish word for the kip or skullcap worn by Orthodox males

64

yeshiva

a traditional school for the study of the scriptures and Jewish law

65

Yiddish

the language spoken by many Central and Eastern European Jews in recent centuries; although it is written in Hebrew characters and contains some words derived from Hebrew, it is essentially German in its structure and vocabulary

66

Yom Kippur

The day of atonement dedicated to solemn reflection and examination of ones conduct; falls ten days after Rosh Hashanah, usually in September

67

Zion

In biblical times, the hill in Jerusalem where the Temple stood as God's dwelling place; by extension, the land of the Israelites; in modern times, the goal of Jewish migration and nationstate settlement (Zionism)

68

Zionism

The modern movement, initiated by Theodor Herzl in 1897, for a Jewish nation-state in the ancient land of Israel

69

Zvi, Sabbatai

A student of Lurianic Kabbalah who was declared the messiah in the year 1666; given the choice between death and conversion to Islam, he chose to convert

70

aborigine

an indigenous person; often specifies an Indigenous person of Australia

71

Ainu

The Indigenous people of northern Japa; not officially recognized as such by the government of Japan until 2008. Current population estimates range from 25,000 to 200,000.

72

Anishinaubae

th term traditionally used by th eOdawa. Ojibwa, and Algonkin people to refer to themselves; located mainly around the Great Lakes in Canada and the U.S.

73

Arawak

The Indigenous people encountered by Columbus in the West Indies in 1492. Most were killed by the Spanish, but a few small populations remain in northeastern Soth America.

74

Attawapiskat

An isolated Cree community on James Bay in northern Ontario. In December 2012 Attawapiskat's chief, Theresa Spence began a hunger strike to protest the treatment of Aboriginal people by the government of Canada.

75

Aymara

South American Indigenous people from the Andes and Altiplano regions, initially colonized by the Inca and then by the Spanish. The current population is about 2 million in Bolivia, Chile and Peru

76

Bunu

A yoruba group in central Nigeria

77

cargo cults

religious movements, mainly in Melanesia. inspired by the shipments of goods arriving for foreigners; founded on the belief that one day the spirits would send similar shipments to the Indigenous people initiation a new age of peace and social harmony.

78

Cherokee

The largest federally recognized Native American group, with more than 300,000 members. Most currently live in the southeastern US, with band headquarters in Oklahoma and North Carolina

79

Chumash

A Native American people traditionally based along the southern California coast. Although only about 200 remained in 1900, recent estimates put their numbers at around 5,000.

80

colonialism

the process in which people from one place establish and maintain a settlement in another, and its consequences for th eIndigenous people

81

complementray dualism

a worldview in which the universe necessarily comprises both creative and destructive forces, which can work together; a feature of many indigenous religions.

82

conflict dualism

a worldview in which the universe is divided between good and evil forces that are in constant battle with one another; a feature of many Western religions

83

Cree

the largest Aboriginal group in Canada, numbering more than 200,000. Formerly based in central Canada, Cree populations are now well established in every province from Alberta to Quebec, as well as parts of the northern US.

84

Crow

A siouan-speaking Native American people historically based in the Yellowstone River valley, and now concentrated in Montana.

85

diviner

a religious specialist who uses ritual tools and practices to gain insight into the hidden or spiritual aspects of particular circumstances, events, problems, etc.

86

Dogan

A West African people living mainly in central Mali, with a population of about half a million. Their first contact with European was in 1857, but the Dogan have been more successful at preserving their traditional religion than many other Indigenous Africas

87

the Dreaming

the term that anthropologists gave to the time and place of Australian Aboriginal origin stories. Although often assumed to represent the archaic past, The Dreamingis understood by many traditional Aborigines to lie just out of reach of living memory.

88

Elders

Men or women whose wisdom and authority in cultural matters are recognized by their community. Elders are not necessarily old, but are understood to posses greater knowledge of tradition than others, and often to be more closely in touch with spiritual forces.

89

Ghost Dance

A religious movement that emerged in the western US in response to colonialism. Launched in 1869 and revived in 1889, the Ghost Dance was performed in an effort to hasten the removal of the settlers and the restoration of what Native people had lost. Smaller revivals occurred periodically throughout the twentieth century

90

Haisla

First Nation on the North Coast of British Columbia; The population of the Haisla reserve in Kitimaat Village is less than 2,000.

91

hogan

A traditional Navajo home. The first hogan was the Earth itself, and so building a new home reproduces the creation. This structure is at the centre of the community's domestic social. and religious life.

92

Igbo

One of the largest Indigenous group in Nigeria, based in the southeast; worldwide population estimates range between 20 million and 40 million.

93

Indian Act

Canadian federal legislation created in 1876 that definees and regulates Native people and their lands and outlines the federal government's responsibilities towards them. The act is administered by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and has undergone several amendments and revisions.

94

Iroquois

Also known as the Six Nations; a North American Native confederacy based in the northeastern US and Southeastern Canada, originally composed of five Iroquoian-speaking groups and joined in 1722 by the Tuscarora

95

Ju/'hoansi

Indigenous African group with a population of about 30,000 in northeast Namibia and 5,000 in northwest Botswana. Until 50 years ago, the Ju/'joins were nomadic hunters and gatherers, but since then most of them have adopted settled lives and occupations.

96

Karuk

a community in northwestern California, with a population of about 3,500. karaoke translates as upstream people in contrast to their downstream neighbors, the Yurok

97

Lakota

The largest of the three Native American groups that make up the Sioux Nation; originally based near the Great Lakes, but moved to the Great Plains in response to the influx of European settlers.

98

Maori

The Indigenous people of New Zealand, who appear to have arrived there in the late thirteenth century from elsewhere in Polynesia. Current estimates put the Maori population at around 700,000.

99

marae

the religious and social home of a Maori community: a cleared area bordered with stones or wooden posts and containing several structures including the share whakairo.

100

maya

a mesoamerican civilization, noted for their highly developed written language, art, architecture, mathematics, and astronomy. Despite the Spanish conquest, Maya people today make up a large portion of the population throughout the region, and millions continue to speak Mayan languages.

101

mbari

a mode or style of cultural practice, especially architecture; principally identified with the Owe

102

All Saints Day

A christain festival honoring all the departed saints, held in the west on november 1

103

Daodejing

The daoist classic of the way and power, compiled roughly 2500 years ago and traditionally attributed to Laozi

104

Day of the dead

A mexican festival honoring the dead

105

Fundamentalists

Believers who ascribe total authority to their tradition's scriptures or doctrines, and reject any conflicting secular or religious alternatives

106

Hallowe'en

A popular secular holiday held on 31 october originally celebrated as eve of all saints day

107

high places

sacred areas located on a hill or mountain tops, such places existed through the ancient near east

108

naga

a mythical cobra living in the underworld, often associated with water and fertility in indian religions

109

obon

a japanese festival honouring ancestors

110

shaman

a type of priest, widespread among hunter-gatherer societies, who communicates with the spirit world on behalf of the people

111

stonehendge

one of several ancient rock structures thought to have been constructed for ritual purposes

112

upanishads

hindu religious texts thought to have been composed around 600 bce