Fiser Absite. Ch 06-07. Antibiotics. Medicines And Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fiser Absite. Ch 06-07. Antibiotics. Medicines And Pharmacology Deck (112)
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1

What is the difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant?

antiseptic kills and inhibits organisms on body. disinfectant kills and inhibits organisms on inanimate objects

2

What is the difference in coverage for iodophors like Betadine and Clorhexidine?

Both cover GPCs, GNRs but Chlorhexidine is better for fungi

3

What is the mechanism of action for penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams and vancomycin?

inhbition of cell wall synthesis

4

What is the mechanism of action of tetracycline, aminoglycosides and linezolid?

inhibitors of the 30s ribosome and protein synthesis

5

What is the mechanism of action of erythromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, Synercid?

inhibitors of the 50s ribosome and protein synthesis

6

What is the mechanism of quinolones?

inhibitor of DNA helicase (DNA gyrase)

7

What is the mechanism of rifampin?

inhibitor of RNA polymerase

8

What is the mechanism of metronidazole?

Produces oxygen radicals that breakup DNA

9

Whast is the mechanism of sulfonamides?

PABA analogue, inhibit purine synthesis

10

What is the mechanism of trimethoprim?

inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, inhibits purine synthesis

11

____ have irreversible binding to ribosome and are considered bactericidal

aminoglycosides

12

What is the most common method of antibiotic resistance?

transfer of plasmids

13

How is the mechanism of resistance to methiclllin or vancomycin developed?

mutation in cell wall binding protein

14

How is the mechanism of resistance to gentamicin developed?

resistance due to modifying enzymes leading to decrease in active transport

15

What do you do if abx peak is too high?

decrease amount of each dose

16

trough too high?

decrease frequency

17

Which antibiotic's coverage can be described as: Not effective against Staphylococcus or Enterococcus. But effective against GPCs, streptococci, syphilis, Neisseria meningitides (GPR), Clostridium perfringens (GPR), beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, anthrax

Penicillin

18

Anti-staph penicillins

Oxacillin/nafcillin

19

Same coverage as penicillin but also picks up enterococci

Ampicillin/amoxicillin

20

Name the two abx that are broad-spectrum - pick up GPCs (staph and strep), GNRs, +/- anaerobic coverage. Effective for enterococci but not effective for pseudomonas, acinetobacter or serratia.

Unasyn (ampicillin/sulbactam) and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid)

21

Name the two antipseudomonal abx that are broad spectrum – pick up GPCs (staph and strep), GNRs, anaerobes. Effective for enterococci; effective for Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Serratia.

Timentin (ticarcillin/clavulanic acid) and Zosyn (piperacillin/sulbactam)

22

What are the side effects of ticarcillin/piperacillin?

inhibit platelets; high salt load

23

Name two first generation cephalosporins

Ancef (cefazolin), Keflex (cephalexin)

24

What does the first generation cephalosporins cover?

GPCs staph and strep

25

limitations of ancef / keflex

Not effective for enterococcus; does not penetrate CNS

26

Which first generation cephalosporin is best for phrophylaxis?

cefazolin (Ancef) has the longest half-life

27

What are the side effects of the first generation cephalosporins?

can produce positive coombs test

28

Name three 2nd-generation cephalosporins

cefoxitin, cefotetan, cefuroxime

29

Main side effect of 2nd-generation cephalosporins.

Prolonged PT

30

Third generation cephalosporins cover ___ mostly, +/- anaerobic coverage.

GNRs