Fiser Absite. Ch 03-05. Blood Products. Immunology. Infection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fiser Absite. Ch 03-05. Blood Products. Immunology. Infection Deck (114)
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1

Which blood products do not carry the risk of HIV and hepatitis because they are heat treated?

albumin and serum globulins

2

Who gets CMV-negative blood?

low birth-weight infants, bone marrow transplant pts and other transplant pts

3

What is the number one cause of death from transfusion reaction?

Clerical error leading to ABO incompatibility

4

Stored blood is low in ____ causing a left-shift

2,3 DPG

5

Back pain, chills, tachycardia, fever, hemoglobinuria in pt that has been transfused. May present as diffuse bleeding in anesthetized patient.

acute hemolysis (ABO incompatibility, antibody mediated)

6

What is the treatment for acute hemolysis (ABO incompatibility)

fluids, diruetics, HCO3-, pressors, histamine blockers

7

What is the most common transfusion reaction and what is the pathophys?

febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction. recipient antibody reaction against WBCs in donor blood

8

What is the treatment for febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction?

stop transfusion and use WBC filters for subsequent transfusions

9

Anaphylaxis after transfusion. What is usually the pathophys?a and was is the tx?

Usually IgG against IgA in IgA-deficient patient. Tx: fluids, Lasix, pressors, steroids, epi, histamin blockers

10

What is the pathophys of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)?

antibodies to recipient's WBCs, clot in pulmonary capillaries

11

Dilutional thrombocytopenia occurs after transfusion of ___ units of PRBCs.

10

12

What electrolyte abnormality can occur with massive transfusion?

hypocalcemia

13

Antiplatelet antibodies develop in ___% of pts after 10-20 platelet transfusions

20

14

Hetastarch (Hespan) can be used up to ___ L without the risk of bleeding complications.

1

15

Most common bacterial contaminate of transfused blood?

GNRs usually e. coli

16

Most common blood product source of contamination?

platelets (not refrigerated)

17

What parasitic disease can be transmitted with blood transfusion?

chagas disease

18

What is the most common blood type?

O+

19

Predominant release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-2, INF-gamma). Involved in cell-mediated responses

Th1 helper T cells (CD4)

20

Predominant release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 -> inhibits macrophages). Involved in atopy and allergic responses.

Th2 helper T cells (CD4)

21

IL-___ causes B-cell maturation into plasma cells (antibody secreting).

4

22

IL-___ causes maturation of cytotoxic T cells

2

23

Recognize and attack non-self antigens attached to MHC class I receptors (e.g. viral gene products)

Cytotoxic T cells (CD8)

24

Infections associated with defects in ___ immunity - intracellular pathogens (TB, viruses)

cell-mediated

25

Can increase T-cell mediated immunity.

Nucleotides

26

What are the types of MHC class I

A, B and C

27

What are the types of MHC class II

DR, DP and DQ

28

CD8 cell activation. Present on all nucleated cells. Single chain with 5 domains. Target for cytotoxic T cells.

MHC class I

29

CD4-cell activation. Present on B cells, dendrites, monocytes, and antigen-presenting cells. 2 chains with 4 domains each. Activator for helper T cells. Stimulate antibody formation.

MHC class II

30

___ infection - endogenous viral proteins produce, are bound to class I MHC, go to cell surface, and are recognized by CD8 cytotoxic T cells

Viral