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Flashcards in Five Fevers and Plagues Deck (21)
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1

What endemic disease originates from a parasitic blood fluke?

Schistosomiasis

2

Describe the transmission of Schistosomiasis.

Worm lives in freshwater snails in a symbiotic relationship- worm eggs are released into the water- humans touch water and eggs enter hair follicles, cuts, etc.- live in veins of humans- pass through stool

3

What are the primary symptoms of Schistosomiasis?

Blood in urine, enlarged spleen and liver, and abdominal pain

4

How did the Nile affect Ancient Egyptians in the perspective of Schistosomiasis?

The Nile was used for agriculture, fishing, papyrus, irrigation and bathing which all created optimal conditions for freshwater snails and thus, blood flukes

5

What is the Fall of Jericho?

Biblical event of the destruction of the city of Jericho that was most likely caused by schistosomiasis

6

What endemic disease was thought to be caused by "bad air" in marshy areas?

Malaria

7

How is malaria transmitted?

Anopheles mosquito breeds in standing water- mosquito infected by a parasite- mosquito bites human and gives the parasite- infected liver cells- infected red blood cells- blood taken by a mosquito- mosquito infected

8

What is the difference between Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax?

P. falciparum is more severe than P. vivax and was more of an issue for the Romans in the Pontine Marshes

9

Who was Empedocles?

A Greek physician that saved people by draining their marsh

10

What major conflict between Sparta and Athens occurred in 431-404 BCE?

Peloponnesian War

11

Who was Thucydides?

An Athenian general and historian who documented the Peloponnesian War

12

How did the Plague of Athens occur?

In 430 BCE, an epidemic was brought by ship to Piraeus from Egypt that raged two years and killed about 25% of the population of Athens. Suspected typhus

13

What were the effects of the Plague of Athens?

Demoralized the people, weakened the army, and dragged out the war to the eventual defeat of Athens

14

What organization came to Rome in 293 BCE to avert pestilence?

The Cult of Asclepius

15

A major Roman event in 164 CE that caused the death of Marcus Aurelius?

Antonine Plague that killed about a third of the population and was most likely smallpox

16

What term describes someone who has not been exposed to a disease before?

Immunologically naive

17

What epidemic is described as "The First Plague"?

The Plague of Justinian

18

Where did the Plague of Justinian come from?

Caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria in the foregut of the flea vector on rats. Spread through Byzantine Empire from China and Northeast India with rats from merchant ships

19

What are the basic symptoms of the plague?

Normal fever and illness but develops into buboes in the lymphatic system and eventual death

20

What is the name of the written account of the Plague of Justinian and who wrote it?

Secret History by Procopius

21

What were the effects of the Plague of Justinian?

Approximately 25 million deaths, Emperor Justinian fell ill himself but survived, however, this led to much of his failures due to lack of government officials and law & order