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After running a demulsibility test, the results were recorded as 40/40/0. What does this mean?

40 ml oil / 40 ml water / 0 ml emulsion
Page 82


What industry group sets standards for the following products? Lubricants in general, gear oils, engine oils, grease, and industrial oils.

Lubricants in general - ASTM
Gears - AGMA and API
Engine oils - API and SAE
Grease - NLGI
International oils - ISO or DIN
Page 81


Name five terms used to report viscosity.

1. Apparent 6. Redwood Universal
2. Absolute cP 7. Redwood Admiralty
3. Kinematic cSt 8. Engler
4. Saybolt Universal Viscosity 9. Saybolt Furol
5. Brookfield
Page 87


How is absolute viscosity measured?

Absolute viscosity is the tangential force on a unit area of either one of two parallel planes at a unit distance apart when the space is filled with liquid and one of the planes moves relative to the other with unit velocity in its own plane.


How is kinematic viscosity measured?

Kinematic viscosity is the time required for a fixed amount of oil to flow through a capillary tube under the force of gravity at a specified temperature.


Viscosity Index is calculated from viscosities measured at what temperatures?

Viscosity Index is calculated from viscosities measured at 40°C and 100°C or 100° F and 210° F.


An AGMA 5 gear oil is approximately what ISO VG? SAE gear oil grade? SAE engine oil grade?

ISO VG 220
SAE 90 gear oil
SAE 50 engine oil.
Page 87


The change in neutralization number of industrial lube oil in service is useful for monitoring what property of the oil?

Level of deterioration due to oxidation.


How is neutralization number expressed? What does it signify?

Neutralization number is the amount of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize the acid in one gram of oil.

Total Acid Number is expressed in ml KOH. TAN is used for industrial oils to indicate level of oxidation.

HCI is used to measure Total Base Number, but is expressed in equivalent KOH. It is used to measure the acid-neutralizing capability of
engine oils.


Name three oxidation tests.

1. Staeger Oxidation Test
2. Universal Oxidation Test
3. CIGRE IP 280.85
4. ASTM D 943 Turbine Oil Stability Test
5. ASTM D 2272 Rotary Bomb Oxidation Test (RBOT)
6. ASTM D 942 Oxidation Stability of Greases


What does RBOT stand for and what property is RBOT useful in monitoring?

Rotary bomb oxidation test (RBOT)
It is now called Rotary Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test (RPVOT)
RBOT is useful in monitoring oxidation life of a lubricant.


What is flash point?

The flash point of a lubricant is the lowest temperature at which it gives off sufficient vapors so that the vapors will ignite when a small flame is periodically passed over the surface of a lubricant.


Name three flash point tests?

Three commonly used flash point tests are:
ASTM D 92 Cleveland Open Cup
ASTM D 93, Pensky-Martens Closed Cup
ASTM D 56 Tag Closed Cup
Page 84


What is fire point?

The fire point is the temperature at which oil gives off enough vapors that a spark will ignite them and maintain a flame for at least 5 seconds.


Emission spectroscopy cannot detect particles in lubricating oil greater than _____ microns in size.

10 microns


What type of analysis measures wavelength absorbance by water, hydrocarbons, oxidation products, nitration products, and glycol?

Infrared analysis
(FTIR) Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis


Name two methods of measuring water in oil.

1. Water by distillation and Karl Fischer
2. Qualitatively, water can be detected visually or by using the crackle test


What is the difference between the static and dynamic demulsibility test?

Static demulsibility tests measure the ability of oil to separate from water without agitation. Dynamic demulsibility measures water separability under circulating conditions.


What does a water washout test measure?

The tendency of grease to withstand water washout in bearings. A ball bearing is rotated 600 rpm; 100 degrees F water impinges on the bearing plate. The test measures the percent of grease washed out in one hour. The test is repeated with 175° F water.


What is the Dropping Point test?

The Dropping Point test is a test that measures the temperature at which a drop of fluid is released from a grease test cup. It measures the temperature at which the thickener breaks down.


What is BS&W?

BS&W stands for Bottom Sediment and Water, a measure of water and solid contamination in oil and fuel


What test would be used to detect nitration in gas engine oil?

Infrared analysis (FTIR)


What is the Timken OK Load test?

Timken OK Load is a measure of the EP characteristics of a lubricant. The Timken Ok load is the maximum load that can be applied without scoring a test block loaded by a lever arm.


What is copper strip corrosion?

ASTM D 130 Copper Corrosion measures corrosion on a copper strip when it is immersed in a lubricant under standard conditions. Results are reported on a scale from 1a (slight tarnish) to 4c (jet black corrosion).


What test is performed on electrical insulating oils to determining their suitability for continued use?

Dielectric Strength and other tests suggested by IEEE and ANSI


What is pH? Why is a pH test generally not run on lubricating oils?

pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. Since oil and water don't mix, pH values for oil are not accurate.


What on-site test can be performed on water-based hydraulic fluids or metalworking coolants to check water content?

Refractometer or refractive index (it's also possible to add sulfuric acid or Epsom salts to break the emulsion and measure the phases in graduated cylinder)


What are Conradson and Ramsbottom carbon.

Carbon Residue Test and Ramsbottom Carbon measures the amount of carbon residue remaining after extreme heating in the absence of air.
It is expressed as the amount of carbon in oil after coking.


What does a panel coker test measure?

The panel coker test measures the coking tendency (or the tendency to form solid decomposition products) when in contact with surfaces at elevated temperature.


When is the best time to take a sample for oil analysis?

While the system is circulating and while the machine is operating at normal loads, pressures, speeds, and temperatures.