Flashcards in Solvents Deck (26)
What is the flash point range for combustible liquids?
OSHA Combustible - 100° F to 200° F
Dot Combustible - 141° F to 200° F
OSHA Flammable - less than 100° F
DOT and IATA Flammable - up to 141° F
RCRA Ignitable - less than 141° F
What are the flash point ranges for class I, II and III liquids?
This standard is obsolete. Two agencies that still have a class III are:
DOT Flash point between 141° F and 200° F
(Combustible liquid) - Class III
United Nations (UN) flash points
Up to 141° F - Class 3.3
0° F to 73° F - Class 2
Below 0° F - Class 1
What is perc (or perchloroethylene)?
A chlorinated solvent formally used in dry cleaning. It is being replaced by petroleum solvents due to environmental concerns.
Name one solvent in each of the following categories: Petroleum solvents, “coal tar” solvents, chlorinated solvents, oxygenated solvents.
Petroleum solvents-mineral spirits, Stoddard solvent
Coal tar solvents-toluene, xylene (which are also considered petroleum solvents)
Chlorinated solvents-trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene
Oxygenated solvents-MEK, acetone
What is a TLV?
Threshold limit value (TLV) - the maximum concentration that may be inhailed over and 8-hour work day, 40-hour work week with minimal hazard to health.
Name three common methods of industrial cleaning.
"Cold" cleaning with chlorinated and hydrocarbon solvents
What property does aniline point and Kauri Butanol test?
What are some important solvent properties?
As measured by aniline point and/or Kauri Butanol value
What is a VOC?
Volatile Organic Compound
Does a solvent with a mixed aniline point of around 500° F have relatively high or low solvency?
Relatively high solvency
What is the difference between an aromatic and aliphatic solvent?
Aromatics contain a benzene ring as part of their molecular structure. They have high odor, solvency and toxicity. Aliphatics do not contain benzene rings. They have lower odor, solvency and toxicity.
Organic solvents can come from ________ _______ or _______ ______.
Crude oil or coal tar
A surfactant is defined as a ____________________________ __________________________________________________.
A surface-active agent that reduces the interfacial tension of a liquid.
Organic solvents used for maintenance cleaning can be classified as _________, __________, and ____________.
How do toxic materials enter the body?
Through the skin
Through the eyes
Name three components of the “fire triangle”, or, what three things are necessary for combustion to occur?
Why are VOC’s being phased out?
Regulations limiting Volatile Organic Compounds address concerns about pollution and global warming.
What is the fastest growing type of maintenance cleaning?
Water based cleaners to replace petroleum or halogenated cleaners.
How should you dispose of spent (used) cleaning solvents?
In an environmentally responsible manner.
Name two solvents that are potential depleters of the ozone layer under the international Montreal protocol.
What things need to be considered when selecting a solvent ? List five.
What you want to clean
Safe use of the solvent
Solubility of material in the solvent
Carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorofluorocarbons are all what types of solvents?
What physical characteristic make all three solvents (1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chlorofluorocarbons) attractive for plant use as solvents?
What does the “Minimum Ignition Temperature” (MIT) mean for a solvent?
The ignition source has to be at or above the MIT (Minimum Ignition Temperature) before there is ignition of vapor/air mixture.
Besides time, name three things that can be done to improve solvent cleaning.
Use a solvent with greater solvency