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Flashcards in Solvents Deck (26)
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0

What is the flash point range for combustible liquids?

OSHA Combustible - 100° F to 200° F
Dot Combustible - 141° F to 200° F
(Also FYI)
OSHA Flammable - less than 100° F
DOT and IATA Flammable - up to 141° F
RCRA Ignitable - less than 141° F

1

What are the flash point ranges for class I, II and III liquids?

This standard is obsolete. Two agencies that still have a class III are:
DOT Flash point between 141° F and 200° F
(Combustible liquid) - Class III
United Nations (UN) flash points
Up to 141° F - Class 3.3
0° F to 73° F - Class 2
Below 0° F - Class 1

2

What is perc (or perchloroethylene)?

A chlorinated solvent formally used in dry cleaning. It is being replaced by petroleum solvents due to environmental concerns.

3

Name one solvent in each of the following categories: Petroleum solvents, “coal tar” solvents, chlorinated solvents, oxygenated solvents.

Petroleum solvents-mineral spirits, Stoddard solvent
Coal tar solvents-toluene, xylene (which are also considered petroleum solvents)
Chlorinated solvents-trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene
Oxygenated solvents-MEK, acetone

4

What is a TLV?

Threshold limit value (TLV) - the maximum concentration that may be inhailed over and 8-hour work day, 40-hour work week with minimal hazard to health.

5

Name three common methods of industrial cleaning.

Alkaline cleaners
"Cold" cleaning with chlorinated and hydrocarbon solvents
Vapor degreasing

6

What property does aniline point and Kauri Butanol test?

Solvency

7

What are some important solvent properties?

Solvency
As measured by aniline point and/or Kauri Butanol value
Distillation range
Flash point
Evaporation rate
Regulatory compliance

8

What is a VOC?

Volatile Organic Compound

9

Does a solvent with a mixed aniline point of around 500° F have relatively high or low solvency?

Relatively high solvency

10

What is the difference between an aromatic and aliphatic solvent?

Aromatics contain a benzene ring as part of their molecular structure. They have high odor, solvency and toxicity. Aliphatics do not contain benzene rings. They have lower odor, solvency and toxicity.

11

Organic solvents can come from ________ _______ or _______ ______.

Crude oil or coal tar

12

A surfactant is defined as a ____________________________ __________________________________________________.

A surface-active agent that reduces the interfacial tension of a liquid.

13

Organic solvents used for maintenance cleaning can be classified as _________, __________, and ____________.

Petroleum
Oxygenated
Halogenated

14

How do toxic materials enter the body?

Ingestion
Respiration
Through the skin
Through the eyes

15

Name three components of the “fire triangle”, or, what three things are necessary for combustion to occur?

Oxygen
Fuel
Ignition Source

16

Why are VOC’s being phased out?

Regulations limiting Volatile Organic Compounds address concerns about pollution and global warming.

17

What is the fastest growing type of maintenance cleaning?

Water based cleaners to replace petroleum or halogenated cleaners.

18

How should you dispose of spent (used) cleaning solvents?

In an environmentally responsible manner.

19

Name two solvents that are potential depleters of the ozone layer under the international Montreal protocol.

1,1,1-trichloroethane
Halons
Chlorofluorocarbons
Carbon tetrachloride

20

What things need to be considered when selecting a solvent ? List five.

What you want to clean
Hygiene requirements
Disposal requirements
Safe use of the solvent
Solubility of material in the solvent

21

Carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorofluorocarbons are all what types of solvents?

Chlorinated Solvents

22

What physical characteristic make all three solvents (1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chlorofluorocarbons) attractive for plant use as solvents?

Non Flammable

23

What does the “Minimum Ignition Temperature” (MIT) mean for a solvent?

The ignition source has to be at or above the MIT (Minimum Ignition Temperature) before there is ignition of vapor/air mixture.

24

Besides time, name three things that can be done to improve solvent cleaning.

Increase temperature
Increase agitation
Use a solvent with greater solvency

25

What are some criteria to consider when selecting a solvent-type cleaner?

Type of soil
Degree of cleanliness required
Health and fire hazard potential
Equipment required
Environmental
Safety and health regulations
Resistance of materials to solvent attack