Fluid and Electrolytes Flashcards Preview

Nur 111 - Unit 4 Exam > Fluid and Electrolytes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluid and Electrolytes Deck (47):
1

Balance between intake and output and movement of water in substances that is dissolved between different compartments

Homeostasis

2

What is the average total body of water for infants

70 - 80 %

3

What is the average total of body of water in children?

65%

4

Lean muscular adults have a total body of water of?

75%

5

What is the average total of body of water for Men and Women?

65 % and 55 %

6

fluid found WITHIN the cell (2/3)

Intracellular (ICF)

7

Fluid found outside the cell (1/3)

Extracellular (ECF)

8

What are the two sub-components of ECF?

Intravascular fluid (plasma) 20%
Interstitial fluid (intercellular) 75%

9

What does a fluid balance consist of ?

fluid intake
fluid distribution
fluid output

10

what is the average fluid intake for an average adult?

2300 ml (but the amount can vary depending on exercise and diet)

11

The movement of fluid among it's various departments

fluid distribution

12

measurement of the concentration of solutes in body fluids

osmolality

13

What is the greatest determinant of serum osmolality?

Sodium

14

The osmolality of ECF is _______ to that of the ICF

approximate or equal to

15

"pulling pressure"
Power of a solution to pull water across a semipermeable membrane to equalize the solution

Osmotic Pressure

16

"pushing pressure" exerted by a fluid within a closed system on the walls of a container in which it is contained (an example of this is the force exerted by blood against the vascular walls)

Hydrostatic Pressure

17

Develops with changes in normal osmotic hydrostatic pressure differences (occurs when there is an increase in the hydrostatic pressure and decrease in osmotic pressure)

Edema

18

Passive process whereby water moves across a membrane from a lower particle concentration (hypotonic) solution to a higher particle concentration solution

Osmosis ( important in maintaining homeostasis)

19

passive process where molecules move across a semipermeable membrane from a solution of higher concentration to a solution of lower concentration

Diffusion

20

process where fluid + small solutes move together across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an are of lower pressure

Filtration

21

movement of SOLUTES across cell membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated area. Energy ATP is used. (ex. is a sodium-potassium pump)

Active Transport

22

Due to injury or disease
fluid may shift from the vascular space and become "trapped" in other areas

Third Spacing

23

What is considered sensible fluid intake and fluid loss?

fluid intake ; 2400 - 2700 ml
fluid loss: 2400 - 2700 ml

24

What is considered insensible fluid loss? (loss that can not be perceived or measured by an individual)

2300 2600 ml

25

how much fluid intake does an adult need on average for a day?

30ml/kg/day of fluid

26

the hypothalamus is the primary regulator of body fluid intake due to the ____ mechanism being located here

Thirst Mechanism

27

The ____ are the primary regulator of the body fluid and electrolyte balance and acid base balance

Kidney

28

The most dominate electrolyte in the extracellular fluid and is a major contributor to osmolality

Sodium

29

Where sodium goes _____ goes

water

30

a hormone that regulates water excretion and causes the kidneys to retain fluid

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

31

Pressure sensors in the vascular system stimulate or inhibits the release of ____

ADH

32

A hormone that is produced by the cardiac atrium in response to excess blood volume that stretches the atrial wall. Acts on the nephrons as a potent diuretic to decrease blood volume.

Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)

33

What should be included in the assessment for a fluid and electrolyte imbalance?

Age (very young and old at risk)
Environment (excessively hot?)
Dietary intake: (fluids, salt, foods rich in potassium, calcium and magnesium)
Lifestyle: (alcohol intake history)
Medications: (include OTC and herbal, in addition to prescription medications)

34

What medical history should be assessed for risk factors in order to diagnose fluid and electrolyte imbalance?

Recent surgery: physiological stress
Gastrointestinal output
Acute illness and trauma
Chronic illness
Stress

35

Measures the volume in percentage of RBCs in relation to plasma which then changes as blood plasma volume changes.
Average in Men 40 - 54%
Average in Women 37 - 47%

Hematocrit

36

Measures the amount of all chemical particles dissolved in serum and provides information on the body's water balance. Has an inverse relationship with hydration (when hydration increases ___________ decreases)

Serum Osmolality

37

Protein produced by the liver 35 - 50 g/L
(has a sponge like effect)

Albumin

38

Important for intracellular metabolism in producing and using ATP. Promotes carbs, fats, and protein metabolism. Powers the Na - K pump. regulates cardiac function. transmit nerve impulses. relaxes muscle contractions

Magnesium (1.5 - 25 mEq/L)

39

what are some food sources for magnesium?

whole grains, nuts, dried fruit, green leafy vegetables, dairy products, tuna fish and chocolate

40

what are some major sources of calcium?

dairy, cheese, yogurt, broccoli, kale, grains, egg yolks

41

Responsible for forming bones and teeth. Aids in the clotting of blood. Transmitting nerve impulses. Regulates cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle contraction. Decreases neuro-muscular irritability

Calcium (8.5 - 10.5 mg/dL)

42

Maintain proper blood volume and pressure. Necessary for maintenance of acid- base via the kidneys. Most of this electrolyte comes from the salt or sodium chloride that you eat.) Easily absorbed by the intestines and it is eliminated through the kidneys.

Chloride (96 - 108 mE/L)

43

Most abundant electrolyte in ECF: 90%. Main determinant of serum osmolality. Necessary to regulate balance of fluid. Kidneys main regulator of sodium re-absorption or excretion (hormones).

Sodium ( 135 - 145 mEq/L)

44

What are some food high in potassium?

oranges, dried fruits, tomatoes, avocados, dried peas, meats, broccoli, bananas, dairy products, whole grains

45

What is important to remember when taking potassium?

Take with food

46

What candy in large amounts can cause hypokalemia?

Licorice

47

Most abundant cation in ICF: maintains fluid inside of the cells. Necessary for nerve impulse transmission, regulates cell excitability. ICF and ECF K+ ration must be maintained. Vital for skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle activity.

Potassium ( 3.5 - 5.3)