Flashcards in Urinary Elimination Deck (40):
secretion and excretion of body wastes from the kidneys
what is apart of the upper urinary tract?
kidneys and the ureters
what is apart of the lower urinary tract?
urinary bladder, urethra, and pelvic floor
the primary regulator of fluid and electrolytes and acid base balance
the urine is formed here. the blood is filtered and the waste is then removed.
tiny capillaries that are surrounded by bowman's capsule that make up a nephron. This is the exact location of where the blood is filters.
Most _____ occurs in the glomerulus. Blood pressure forces water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea into Bowman's capsule. Proteins and blood cells are too large to cross the membrane. The remain in the blood. The fluid that enters the renal tubules is called the ____.
filtration ; filtrate
As the filtrate flows through the renal tubule, most of the water and nutrients are _______ into the blood. The concentrated fluid that remains is called urine.
water and electrolytes are mainly absorbed here
The proximal convoluted tubule
glucose is mainly absorbed here
The loop of henle
Tubular secretion takes place here, and where additional sodium and water will be reabsorbed back into the blood depending on two hormones. ADH and aldosterone.
Distal convoluted tubule
When fluid intake is low or there is an increase in the amount of solute in the blood the pituitary gland releases _____.
involuntary urination in children beyond the age of when voluntary control of the bladder is acquired.
when the bladder is over extended to empty the bladder completely
means no muscle tone or spastic with frequent involuntary urination.
another word for urination
infants have immature kidneys and are unable to concentrate their urine and the older adults may lessen have the ability to hold their urine between their initial desire to void and getting to their bathroom or recognize that they have to use the bathroom. They are also more prone to incontinence due to chronic illnesses or other factors
Developmental lifespan considerations
there may be a cultural or gender norm that varies affecting the urinary practices of an individual. for example public restrooms may be private or very public. As well as social expectation (work and school can interfere with timely voiding). Depression can decrease the desire to void as well
Lifespan considerations such as diabetes those who have experienced a stroke, dementia, spinal cord injuries, males may have enlarged prostate glands. Diuretic medications and some drugs even change the color of urine.
what has the ability to inhibit the release of ADH
List the factors affecting urinary elimination
nutrition and hydration,
activity and position,
sudden strong desire to void
voids at frequent intervals greater than 4 - 6 times a day
difficulty or painful urination
any blood in the urine?
awakening at night to void two or more times.
voided less than 30 ml/hour or 500 ml/day
an abnormally large volume of output on a regular hourly basis
absent urine output of less than 100 ml/day
what is considered normal urine output in a day?
1200-1500 ml /day
what is considered normal urine color?
straw, amber, transparent
inability to usually continent person to reach toilet in time to avoid unintentional loss of urine.
functional urinary incontinence
involuntary loss of urine associated with overdistention of the bladder.
overflow urinary incontinence
involuntary loss of urine at somewhat predictable intervals when a specific bladder volume is reached.
reflex urinary incontinence
sudden leakage of urine with activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure
stress urinary incontinence
involuntary passage of urine occurring soon after a strong sense of urgency to void.
urge urinary incontinence
at risk for involuntary loss of urine associated with sudden, strong sensation of urinary urgency
risk for urge urinary incontinence
What is the pathophysiology/etiology of urinary incontinence
women are more likely to exhibit short urethras
trauma to pelvic floor (multiple pregnancies)
acute or short term incontinence