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Flashcards in Fluids And Electrolytes Deck (246):
1

Alkalemia is pH over?

7.44

2

pH over 7.40, you are dealing with?

Alkalosis

3

pH under 7.40, you are dealing with?

Acidosis

4

Bicarb over 25, you are dealing with?

Metabolic alkalosis

These are general rules since infants have lower bicarb levels than adults

5

Bicarb under 25, you are dealing with?

Metabolic acidosis

These are general rules since infants have lower bicarb levels than adults

6

pCO2 is over 40, you are dealing with?

Respiratory acidosis

7

pCO2 is under 40, you are dealing with?

Respiratory alkalosis

8

Equation for serum osmolality?

2*Na (mEq/L) + [BUN (mg/dL) / 2.8] + [Glucose (mg/dL) / 18]

9

If you are given electrolytes in the question, what should you do?

Calculate serum osmolality

10

What is normal serum osmolality?

265-285
Higher than this: Hyperosmolar or hypertonic
Lower than this: Hypoosmolar or hypotonic

11

What is the formula to correct metabolic acidosis (how much bicarb)?

mEq Bicarbonate = Weight * 0.3 * the base deficit

12

What is the renal threshold for bicarb in term neonates?

21 mEq/L (Their kidneys haven't fully developed)

13

What is the primary cause of respiratory acidosis?

Hypoventilation

14

What does the pCO2 do in respiratory acidosis?

Elevates (Ex: pH 7.15, pCO2 75)

15

What is a common example of something that would blunt the respiratory drive, resulting in hypoventilation and respiratory acidosis?

CNS dysfunction

16

What is the primary cause of respiratory alkalosis?

Hyperventilation

17

What happens to the pCO2 in respiratory alkalosis?

Decreases

Example: pH 7.55, pCO2 25

18

What is a common example of something that would cause hyperventilation (to increase O2) resulting in blowing off too much CO2 leading to respiratory alkalosis?

Pneumonia

19

What 2 things can cause metabolic acidosis?

Increased acids or decreased bicarbonate

20

What happens to bicarb in metabolic acidosis?

It is depleted

Example: pH under 7.4, bicarb under 25

21

What is the leading cause of metabolic acidosis in kids?

Diarrhea

22

What happens to the bicarb in metabolic alkalosis?

It is high

Example: pH over 7.4, bicarb over 25

23

What are 4 common causes of metabolic alkalosis?

1. Vomiting
2. Prolonged NG suction
3. Pyloric stenosis
4. Cystic fibrosis

24

What does the body try to do to minimize any changes in the pH?

Buffer...if the lungs caused the problem, the kidneys will try to fix the pH and vice versa

25

Are compensatory mechanisms complete?

No, incomplete

26

Compensation for metabolic acidosis?

Too much acid and it is the kidneys fault...so lungs help and blow off acid (CO2)

27

Acidemia is pH under?

7.36

28

What is the pH and pCO2 in compensated metabolic acidosis?

Low pH and lowered pCO2 (Ex: pH 7.20, pCO2 25)

29

What is a clinical scenario that could cause compensated metabolic acidosis?

Septic shock (for example, secondary to meningococcemia)

30

Compensation for metabolic alkalosis?

Too much bicarb, usually GI's fault...so the kidneys will have to excrete more bicarb to increase pH (if kidney was problem in first place, it would be a big issue)

31

What is a classic example of a cause of metabolic alkalosis in an infant?

Pyloric stenosis or NG tube

32

How does pyloric stenosis or an NG tube lead to a hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis?

1. Loss of stomach juices leads to loss of hydrogen ions (alkalosis) and loss of chloride ions (hypochloremia)

2. Contraction of extracellular fluid leads to increased bicarb reabsorption in the kidneys causing worsening alkalosis. The kidneys retain chloride, so urine chloride is under 10

33

What is the respiratory response to metabolic alkalosis?

Hypoventilation (to retain CO2)... But hypoventilation can never adequately compensate for metabolic alkalosis (you can't completely stop breathing)

34

Patient with pyloric stenosis, given labs, which one is inconsistent with diagnosis?

Hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis...high pH, low serum chloride, low serum sodium, low serum potassium, hyperbilirubinemia

High potassium would be inconsistent (but remember that a heel stick could have high potassium due to hemolysis, not pathology)

*Write down adjective description of lab values, then cross off ones which are consistent

35

What is the compensation for respiratory acidosis?

Since lungs didn't breath enough and held of to too much CO2 (acidosis), the kidneys will step in and hold on to bicarb

36

What is pH, CO2, and bicarb for respiratory acidosis?

Low pH, high CO2, and high bicarb (Example: pH 7.2, CO2 25, bicarb 32)

37

What is the compensation for respiratory alkalosis?

Lungs blew off too much acid (CO2), so the kidneys need to get rid of bicarb to decrease the alkalosis

38

What is pH, CO2, and bicarb with compensated respiratory alkalosis?

pH is high, CO2 is low, bicarb is low (Example: pH 7.48, pCO2 20, bicarb 15)

39

What acid-base disturbance would occur in a kid who recently moved to Colorado?

Respiratory alkalosis...they would breath rapidly because of the the air...the hypoxia triggers hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis

40

What do you do if you have a patient with acidosis and you are given serum sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate?

Calculate the anion gap

41

What is the equation for anion gap?

Anion gap = Serum sodium - (Chloride + Bicarb)

42

What does the anion gap measure?

Ions that aren't accounted for in routine labs, like protein, organic acids, phosphate, sulfate, and lactic acid

43

What is a normal anion gap?

Between 8-12 mEq/L

44

With metabolic acidosis and a normal anion gap, what happens to the serum chloride?

It is elevated

45

What can cause metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap?

Loss of bicarbonate, kidney dysfunction, diarrhea, addition of hydrochloric acid, renal tubular dysfunction

46

What is the most common cause of a non-gap metabolic acidosis in children?

Diarrhea

47

If you get a kid with a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, but no diarrhea, what should you think?

RTA (almost always 1 or 2)

48

Mnemonic for normal anion gap acidosis?

USEDCARP
Ureterostomy
Small bowel fistula
Extra chloride
Diarrhea
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor use
Adrenal insufficiency
Renal tubular acidosis
Pancreatic fistula

49

Failure to thrive, polyuria, constipation, metabolic acidosis (pH

RTA

50

What is wrong is type 1 (distal) renal tubular acidosis, or classic RTA?

Proximal tubule is fine (keeps all the bicarb it needs to), but the distal tubule doesn't do its job and H isn't allowed into the urine compartment inside the distal tubule

51

What does the urine pH do in type 1 RTA?

Urine high pH (always greater than 5.5) and can't be acidified

52

What organ is the key to acid-base metabolism?

Kidney (more so than breathing)

53

What does the proximal tubule of the kidney do?

Boxes and takes Bicarb Back in

54

What does the distal tubule in the kidney do?

Arranges for H/Acid to leave the building

55

What is the acid-base/metabolic derangement with distal RTA?

Metabolic acidosis associated with hyperchloremia and hypokalemia

56

What is the problem with type 2 (proximal) RTA?

Caused by the inability of the proximal tubule to take back its bicarb (resulting in excessive bicarb in the urine)...the distal tubule can still do its job and show the H+ to the door (urine)

57

What is the urine pH in type 2 (proximal) RTA?

Urine pH is less than 5.5

58

What is type 3 RTA?

Rarely used as a classification today because it is thought to be a combination of type 1 and type 2

59

What causes type 4 RTA?

Resistance to aldosterone (or aldosterone deficiency)

60

What electrolyte is off in type 4 RTA?

Hyperkalemia (remember this is due to resistance to aldosterone or aldosterone deficiency)

61

What is acidosis with an elevated anion gap usually due to?

Overproduction of organic acids, ingestion, inability to excrete acid (like in renal failure)

62

What happens to the serum chloride in acidosis with an elevated anion gap?

Serum chloride is normal

63

What may be mimicked by use of potassium-sparing drugs like spironolactone?

Type 1 (distal) RTA

64

What is mimicked by the use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors like acetazolamide?

Proximal (type 2) RTA

65

What is the classic mnemonic for conditions that are associated with acidosis and an elevated anion gap?

MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Paraldehyde
Ingestion: Iron/Isoniazid
Lactic acid
Ethanol/Ethylene Glycol
Salicylates

66

Why is sodium so important and what organ does it affect if it shifts?

It maintains osmolality

Shifts impact the brain (either swelling of contractions)

67

What is the daily requirement for sodium?

3 mEq/kg/day

68

How much sodium do preterm infants need?

May require 2-3 times normal amount (3 mEq/kg/day) because of renal immaturity and rapid growth

69

What is hypernatremia?

Serum sodium over 145 mEq/L

70

What 2 situations cause hypernatremia?

1. Sodium excess
2. Water deficit

71

What 5 things can result in sodium excess and hypernatremia?

1. Improper mixing of formula (not enough water)
2. Ingestion of sea saltwater
3. Excessive sodium bicarb after resuscitation
4. Breast milk with excessive sodium
5. Iatrogenic

72

What 2 things can result in water deficit and hypernatremia?

1. Diabetes insipidus
2. Diarrhea (both sodium and water are lost, but more water than sodium)

73

What % of a fetus's body weight is water?

90%

74

What happens to total body water as we age?

The percentage decreases

75

In adolescents and adults, what is the TBW as a percentage of body weight?

60%

76

What is total body water broken down into?

Intracellular and extracellular fluids

77

How is equilibrium maintained between intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments?

Diffusion across cell membranes based on serum osmolality between these two compartments

78

Is extracellular fluid maintained in hypernatremia?

Yes

79

Why can hypernatremia cause pulmonary edema?

If there is hypernatremia, water is drawn out of the intracellular compartment, resulting in increased extracellular volume, causing pulmonary edema

80

What do kids with diabetes insipidus do?

Urinate a lot

Diabetes "I am sipping and sipping this"... Drink a lot too because they are peeing a lot

81

What are the 2 types of DI?

Central (lack of ADH), nephrogenic (resistance to ADH)

82

Child that is urinating profusely, but has no sugar in the urine...

DI

83

What do the labs show in DI?

High serum osmolality with inappropriately dilute urine

84

How do you differentiate DI from hypernatremic dehydration?

Check urine

DI kids have continued urination with dilute urine

Dehydrated kids have decreased urination with concentrated urine

85

What is the inheritance of nephrogenic DI?

X-linked (so it's only found in males)

86

What happens in nephrogenic DI?

Kidney doesn't respond to vasopressin (ADH), results in dilute urine

87

Which form of DI responds to exogenous vasopressin?

Central (nephrogenic won't respond)

88

If they describe DI with a familial pattern among males, which type is it?

Nephrogenic

89

What is hyponatremia?

Serum sodium less than 130 mEq/L

90

What are the 3 categories of hyponatremia?

1. Hypovolemic
2. Euvolemic
3. Hypervolemic

91

What is the best study to order to determine the type of hyponatremia you are dealing with?

Urinary fractional excretion of sodium (FENa)

92

If sodium is under 120, what can patients present with?

Lethargy and seizures

93

Hyponatremia is the result of what 2 mechanisms?

1. Loss of sodium
2. Increased water (dilutional)... Either too much taken (polydipsia) or too little let out (SIADH)

94

How can hyponatremia result with sodium and water being lost?

More sodium is lost than water...result is still hyponatremia

An example of this is 3rd space losses post op

95

What happens to urine sodium with hyponatremia secondary to GI losses?

Low urine sodium (under 10)...kidneys hold on to sodium

96

What does SIADH do to urine output?

Diminished urine output

*Anti-diuretic is opposite of diuretic...think of it as syndrome of I am definitely hydrated cause I'm not peeing

97

When do you have appropriate ADH and concentrated urine?

Whenever there is high serum osmolality and you want to retain fluid

98

What can cause SIADH?

Cerebral injury or insult like trauma or a tumor (pituitary produces ADH)

Also certain pulmonary or endocrine disorders can trigger SIADH

99

What drugs can lead to SIADH?

Chemotherapeutic drugs (like vincristine or cyclophosphamide) and antiepileptic carbamazepine

100

What is the mneumonic to remember causes of SIADH?

SIADH
Surgery
Infection
Axon (neurological such as Guillain Barre, brain tumor)
D (Day after, Post op, of any kind)
H (Head and hemorrhage)

101

What is the sodium in SIADH and what causes it?

Hyponatremia...underlying problem is fluid retention, not excretion of sodium

102

What is potassium, urine sodium, and plasma volume in SIADH?

Normal serum potassium, elevated urine sodium (over 25 mEq/L or 25 mmol/L), plasma volume is increased

103

What are the expected lab values in SIADH for serum sodium, BP, urine output, and BUN/Cr?

Low serum sodium: 124 mEq/L
Elevated BP
Decreased urine output: Under 1 cc/kg/day
Normal renal function (Bun/Cr)

104

What can happen to ADH post operatively and what do you do about it?

Risk for increased ADH secretion...important to monitor for hyponatremia and restrict fluids appropriately

105

What is the urine osmolality and sodium concentration ins SIADH?

Urine will have high osmolality and high sodium concentration

106

How to differentiate SIADH from hyponatremic dehydration?

Serum osmolality...SIADH is overhydrated, so serum osmolality is low. Hyponatremic dehydration will have either normal or elevated serum osmolality

107

What happens to BUN in SIADH v. Hyponatremic dehydration?

BUN is elevated in dehydration and decreased in SIADH.

108

What happens to body weight in SIADH versus hyponatremic dehydration?

Body weigh increases in SIADH and decreases in dehydration

109

What is the preferred treatment for SIADH?

Fluid restriction

110

How is SIADH diagnosed?

Diagnosis of exclusion...may need to rule out other disorders leading to hyponatremia before you choose fluid restriction (which can be difficult in infants)

111

How fast is correction of SIADH?

It is slow no matter what

112

What can you do for SIADH is fluid restriction doesn't work?

Furosemide and hypertonic saline

113

What drug can be given to kids 8 and older with SIADH?

Demeclocycline...blocks effects of ADH on kidney

*Since this is a derivative of doxycycline can only give to kids 8 or older

114

What drug blocks the effects of ADH, but is usually not recommended due to its side effect profile?

Lithium

115

What fluids are indicated if serum sodium is less than 120 mEq/L?

3% sodium chloride

116

Which type of diuretics are incorrect for treatment of SIADH?

Thiazides...they can lower sodium even further

117

Patient with head injury or meningitis, either imply or just say patient has SIADH, no neurological symptoms, treatment?

2/3 (0.66) maintenance fluids...use demeclocycline if there is no clinical improvement with appropriate fluid restriction

*Don't pick maintenance, twice maintenance, or 1.5 time maintenance

118

A patient with diminished urine output who is taking in fluid in excess of urine volume will develop what?

Hyponatremia

*They will present you with a clue that renal disease is present (like elevated creatinine)
*Also likely present with edema and urine sodium over 20 mEq/L

119

What is the correct initial treatment for a patient who is oliguric and hemodynamically unstable (even in patients with renal failure)?

20 mL/kg of isotonic solution (normal saline, LR, packed RBC, or albumin)

120

After giving 20mL/kg of isotonic solution for a patient who is oliguric and hemodynamically unstable, what do you do next?

Once hemodynamically stable, adjustments would be based on the urine output, weight, and other symptoms included in question (including presence of pulmonary edema or other conditions)

121

What can chronic diuretic therapy result in?

Hyponatremia

122

Name 4 medications that cause hyponatremia

Vincristine, cyclophosphamide, chlorpropamide (oral hypoglycemic), thiazide diuretics

123

How does vincristine cause hyponatremia?

SIADH

124

How does cyclophosphamide cause hyponatremia?

Diminishes water excretion

125

How does chlorpropamide cause hyponatremia?

Stimulates vasopressin release

126

How do thiazide diuretics cause hyponatremia?

Blocks renal sodium and chloride reabsorption, decreasing the kidney's ability to produce dilute urine

127

What is dilutional hyponatremia due to?

Water intoxication

128

What is the total body sodium in dilutional hyponatremia?

Normal

129

Is there intravascular volume depletion in dilutional hyponatremia?

No, no signs of this

130

Why can seizures occur with dilutional hyponatremia?

Due to cerebral swelling

131

What happens to the urine sodium concentration in dilutional hyponatremia?

Urine sodium concentration is increased

132

What is one of the most common causes of hyponatremia in infants?

Water intoxication...mostly due to excessive dilution of formula with water

133

What is the presentation of infants with water intoxication and hyponatremia?

Afebrile seizures, respiratory insufficiency, hypothermia

134

What can hyponatremic dehydration do to the brain?

Can cause pontine damage

*Hyponatremic and pontine both have an "o" in them

135

What should seizures in a patient with no history of seizures, no history of trauma, and no fever make you think of?

Metabolic causes...like hypoglycemia or hyponatremia

136

What are some causes of seizures due to hyponatremia or hypoglycemia?

Kid who has spent a lot of time swimming (especially if young kid cause they swallow a lot of water), malnutrition, hypotonic IV fluids, glucocorticoid deficiency, hypothyroidism

137

What happens to the total body sodium in dilutional hyponatremia?

Total body sodium is normal in dilutional hyponatremia

138

What 2 scenarios can present like dilutional hyponatremia?

1. Third spacing of fluid
2. Renal salt wasting

139

What can cause third spacing of fluid?

1. After extensive surgery
2. Nephrotic syndrome

140

Third spacing of fluid after extensive surgery can be due to what 2 things?

1. Endothelial damage and/or leakage
2. Hypoalbuminemia and low oncotic pressure

141

In nephrotic syndrome, what is the urine sodium concentration?

Low...less than 10 mEq/L

142

What is an important feature of nephrotic syndrome?

Edema

143

In renal salt wasting, what are two presenting features from fluid and electrolytes perspective?

Hyponatremia, but also hypovolemia

144

Kid who is post op for resection of a craniopharyngioma has hyponatremia, elevated serum creatinine, increased urine output, urine sodium greater than 100 mEq/L, a during osmolality of 350...diagnosis and treatment?

Don't assume SIADH/Fluid restriction...with SIADH urine output is low and urine sodium concentration is also low...hypervolemia is the result and fluid restriction is the correct management

With elevated urine output and elevated urine sodium, the correct diagnosis is cerebral salt wasting, and the correct treatment is replacement of fluid and sodium losses

145

Dilutional hyponatremia and 3rd spacing of fluid both have hyponatremia, but how are they different?

Urine sodium...high in dilutional hyponatremia and low in 3rd spacing of fluid

146

Steps for low sodium value and determining if total body sodium is normal, low, or elevated (pseudohyponatremia)?

1. Get situation with high triglycerides and/or plasma proteins (typical example is nephrotic syndrome)
2. TG's take up lots of room...less water, but volume is same (labs report sodium per volume, not sodium per water...so sodium level is reported low since water is the only part that contains sodium)...So the sodium level in circulation really is normal
3. Lots of water is outside circulation in anything causing edema...there is more water than usual and this water does have sodium...so the total body sodium is elevated

147

What is the measured sodium with edema secondary to decreased oncotic pressure?

Low

148

What is the daily requirement for potassium?

2 mEq/kg/day

149

What is hypokalemia?

Serum potassium less than 3.5 mEq/L

150

Kid with a history of diarrhea presenting with muscle pain, weakness, paralysis, constipation and ileus, or polyuria?

Hypokalemia

151

What GI issue causes hypokalemia and what GI issue does hypokalemia result in?

Hypokalemia can be caused by diarrhea
Hypokalemia results in constipation

152

What are some causes of hypokalemia?

1. Poor intake (anorexic nervosa)
2. Loss: GI (Vomiting/Diarrhea) or Renal (diuretics, renal tubular disorders, or excess aldosterone)

153

What are some EKG changes with hypokalemia?

1. Flattening of T waves
2. ST depression
3. Premature ventricular beats
4. U wave just after T wave (extreme cases)

154

Boy with 2-3 day history of vomiting and diarrhea, taken water and juice, but progressively weaker, difficulty sitting or standing without support...why is he weak?

Hypokalemia...any question asking for a specific explanation for weakness with vomiting and dehydration, it's hypokalemia

*Don't be temped to pick dehydration or hyponatremia

155

In emergency situations, how is potassium replaced?

Use KCl 0.5-1.0 mEq/L per kg over an hour...maximum is 40 mEq/L

*This is only in emergency/urgent situations

156

For mild cases of hypokalemia how do you replace potassium?

Oral replacement

157

If hypokalemia is due to dehydration, how do you fix it?

Fluid replacement with added potassium

158

Is a patient is hypokalemic and acidosis is a factor, what do you use to correct it?

Potassium acetate

159

If a patient is hypokalemic and hypophosphatemia is an issue, what do you use?

Potassium phosphate

160

What is required during IV infusion of KCl?

EKG monitoring

161

What other electrolyte abnormalities besides hypokalemia can present with weakness and EKG changes?

Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia

162

What presents with muscle weakness and prolonged QT interval

Hypocalcemia

163

What can occur in patients with diarrhea and shows a prolonged PR or QT interval on EKG?

Hypomagnesemia

164

Which 2 electrolyte abnormalities present with muscle weakness, but no EKG changes?

Hypoglycemia and hyponatremia

165

What is hyperkalemia?

Serum potassium greater than 5.0 mEq/L

166

Name 4 causes of hyperkalemia?

1. Excess intake
2. Not enough out (renal failure, hypoaldosteronism)
3. Redistribution: Acidosis (H goes into cell, K goes out of cell)
4. Cell breakdown (pseudohyperkalemia)

167

What is the initial EKG finding with hyperkalemia?

Peaked T waves

168

With substantially high potassium levels (10 or greater) what will you see on EKG and what is this associated with?

Absence of P waves and widened QRS complex...associated with electromechanical dissociation (EMD)

169

What can the widened QRS complex from hyperkalemia be misinterpreted as and how do you distinguish?

Idiopathic bundle branch block or ventricular tachycardia

-Wouldn't describe muffled heart sounds or absence of pulses in IBBB
-Pulseless state is possible with ventricular tachycardia at rates of 200 or higher, but no muffled heart sounds

170

How do you treat milder cases of hyperkalemia?

Glucose and insulin, sodium bicarbonate, inhaled albuterol, IV furosemide (Lasix), oral polystyrene resin

171

If you are presented with a patient with potassium greater than 10 who has EKG changes, then what is the correct treatment?

IV calcium chloride...dialysis is also an option

172

Infant with abdominal mass who becomes hypotensive, he has non-palpable pulses and distant heart sounds, EKG shows wide QRS complex...appropriate immediate treatment?

Abdominal mass is adrenal tumor, causing adrenal failure and hyperkalemia...results in electromagnetic dissociation (EMD)... Most appropriate immediate treatment is IV calcium chloride

*Dont pick NS bolus to treat shock or hydrocortisone IV or pressor like dobutamine

173

Alkalosis and potassium...go

1. Alkalosis is high pH, so little H+ in ECF
2. H+ in cells (ICF) move out to ECF to balance things
3. To replace the H+ leaving cells, K+ goes from ECF into ICF
4. During alkalosis, K goes into cells and you get lower measured K levels

174

What happens to serum potassium and total body potassium in alkalosis?

During alkalosis, K moves into ICF and H moves to ECF...lower measured serum potassium and total body potassium is unchanged (it's just hiding in the cells)

175

Acidosis and potassium...go

1. Acidosis is low pH, so lots of H+ floating around in ECF
2. These excess H+ move into the ICF
3. When this happens, the K+ moves out of the cells into the ECF, so there is increased K in the ECF

176

What is serum and total body potassium in acidosis?

In acidosis, the H+ moves into the cells and the K moves out of the cells, so you have high serum potassium and normal total body potassium

177

What are signs of 5% dehydration?

Tachycardia, decreased tear production, decreased urinary output, increased urine concentration

178

5% dehydration means the kid is short how many mL/kg?

50mL/kg

179

Can 5% dehydration be corrected orally?

Yes

180

If you have to do IV fluids to correct 5% dehydration, how do you do it?

Add 50mL/kg to the maintenance fluid and give over 24 hours (half of the total given over first 8 hours and half given over next 16 hours)

181

How do you calculate maintenance fluid for a day?

100mL/kg/day for first 10kg, then 50mL/kg/day for next 10kg, then 20mL/kg/day for each kg after that

182

How do you calculate maintenance fluid rate hourly?

4mL/kg/hr for first 10kg +
2mL/kg/hr for next 10kg +
1mL/kg/hr for each additional kg

183

Signs of 10% dehydration?

Tachycardia, sunken eyes, poor skin turgor, sunken fontanelle

184

10% dehydration means a kid is short how many cc/kg?

100cc/kg

185

How do you correct 10% dehydration?

Maintenance fluids plus 100cc/kg given over 24 hours

186

How are IV fluids given for 10% dehydration?

20cc/kg over an hour (emergency phase), then whatever is left over...give half over next 7 hours and other half over remaining 16 hours

187

Which are early and late signs of dehydration: hypotension, tachycardia, decreased skin turgor, bounding pulses?

Early: Tachycardia
Later: Hypotension, decreased skin turgor, bounding pulses

188

What level of dehydration would you see signs of shock, including delayed capillary refill time?

15% dehydration

189

How many cc/kg is the child short with 15% dehydration?

150cc/kg

190

What do you give to correct 15% dehydration?

Maintenance plus the 150cc/kg

191

How do you give IV fluids to correct 15% dehydration?

Keep giving 20cc/kg boules until you see clinical improvement...then you give half of what is left over during next 7 hours and remaining half over next 16 hours

192

If you are presented with a patient in septic shock, they may require how many blouses of normal saline?

3 20mL/kg boluses or 60mL/kg total

193

For a patient in septic shock, if they ask you how much to give for a bolus, what would the correct answer be?

The total amount is based on findings on frequent reassessment

194

All oral rehydration fluids must contain what?

Glucose

195

Why do oral rehydration fluids have to contain glucose?

In order to cross microvillus membrane of GI tract, sodium has to be accompanied by glucose

196

Besides IV fluids what else do you do for a patient with moderate to severe dehydration (tachycardia and delayed capillary refill)?

Use oral rehydration fluid

197

How much sodium is in oral rehydration fluid and now should it be given?

75 mEq/L of sodium...rate should be 50mL/kg over 1-4 hours (even if given with dropper)

198

What type of oral rehydration is used for mild dehydration and how much sodium does it contain?

Standard maintenance hydration fluids, 50 mEq/L (this solution can be used once capillary refill is normalized in cases of severe dehydration)

199

If you have an infant with moderate to severe dehydration, can you use standard formula?

No... Need oral rehydration fluid

200

When do you use the BRAT diet?

Never, BRAT diet isn't part of AAP recommendations, so it's never the correct answer for managing acute gastroenteritis

201

Toddler with 2-3 days of vomiting and diarrhea...tolerating some clear liquids, dry mucous membranes and mild tachycardia, best management?

Start oral rehydration therapy, followed by a regular diet of complex carbohydrates, fruits, and veggies. Given usual formula at full strength

*Don't pick bolus of isotonic fluids, BRAT diet, or diluted formula

202

What is isotonic dehydration?

Dehydration with serum sodium between 135-145

203

Why does isotonic dehydration result in a symptomatic patient?

Even though sodium and water are lost proportionately, more ECF than ICF fluid is lost...this causes symptoms

204

What is hyponatremic dehydration?

Dehydration with serum sodium under 135

205

What usually causes hyponatremic dehydration?

GI losses (like from diarrhea), but can have element of water intoxication

206

Question hinting at a dehydrated kid who was fed tea or water by grandmother...?

Hyponatremic dehydration

207

In which form of dehydration are patients more symptomatic on presentation and causes the greatest circulatory disturbances?

Hyponatremic dehydration

208

What form of dehydration might they mention poor skin turgor?

Hyponatremic dehydration

209

Why does hyponatremic dehydration cause the greatest circulatory disturbances and causes patients to be more symptomatic on presentation?

Because fluid moves from the ECF to the ICF

210

Why can patients with hyponatremic dehydration present with seizures?

Because free water moves into CNS cells with a serum sodium of 125

211

What is the initial treatment of hyponatremic dehydration?

Normal saline boluses

212

If normal saline boluses don't work for hyponatremic dehydration, what do you do?

Hypertonic 3% saline in the ICU (hypertonic saline isn't indicated as the initial treatment)

213

For hyponatremic dehydration, how do you replace sodium?

A = (Desired sodium - Measured sodium) x Weight x 0.6

Maintenance sodium is 3 mEq/kg/day

Add maintenance to the A...this is amount of sodium, needed over 24 hours

214

Because cystic fibrosis is associated with an increased loss of sodium and chloride in sweat, it can lead to what?

Hypochloremic hyponatremic metabolic alkalosis with dehydration

215

What is hypernatremic dehydration?

Dehydration with a serum sodium over 145

216

What is the cause of hypernatremic dehydration and what is the end result in terms of sodium?

Either due to water loss or sodium gain, end result is lots of sodium in ECF

217

What 2 things in history can cause hypernatremic dehydration?

1. History of being fed improperly mixed formula
2. Severe rotavirus diarrhea (in olden days before rotavirus vaccine)

218

How do infants with hypernatremic dehydration present?

Irritable, lethargic, doughy skin, high pitched cry, eventual seizures

219

How does the body deal with hypernatremic dehydration?

Extreme thirst

220

What type of patients will not act on the thirst mechanism and likely develop hypernatremic dehydration?

Altered mental status: Unconscious, infant, psychotic

221

What happens with hypernatremic dehydration that diminishes the clinical signs of dehydration?

Water tends to go into the ECF

222

What % of dehydration should you assume with hypernatremic dehydration?

Assume 10% dehydration (regardless of clinical presentation)

223

What is the pathophysiology behind hypernatremic dehydration taking longer for symptoms to present for a given level of dehydration?

Due to osmotic pressures, fluid is drawn out of ICF and into ECF...less circulatory disturbances, longer for symptoms to present

224

Why can hypernatremic dehydration result in acidosis?

Due to release of hydrogen ions secondary to cellular destruction

225

How does hypernatremic dehydration lead to potential intracranial hemorrhage?

Intracellular dehydration results from water going to ECF (due to sodium) and this causes brain cells to shrink which can tear bridging blood vessels leading to intracranial hemorrhage

226

How can brain cells combat shrinkage due to hypernatremic dehydration?

The cells can take on idiogenic osmoles to lure the water back

227

How long does it take idiogenic osmoles to develop in hypernatremic dehydration?

Over 1-2 days, they don't go away quickly either

228

Why should hypernatremic dehydration be corrected slowly over 2-3 days?

Avoid cerebral edema (idiogenic osmoles are present and take time to go away)... Don't want water rushing in to meet the idiogenic osmoles

229

What should the decrease in sodium per day be to avoid cerebral edema when correcting hypernatremic dehydration?

No more than 10-12 mEq/L per day

230

What is the treatment goal for hypernatremic dehydration?

Correct the sodium concentration as well as circulating volume

231

If hypernatremic dehydration is chronic, what is the rate of sodium reduction?

0.5 mEq/L per hour

232

How do you correct severe hypernatremia (sodium of 170 or greater)?

Over 48-72 hours using 0.5 or 0.25 normal saline

233

What is done is there are signs of overcorrection with hypernatremic dehydration?

Hypertonic solution should be used as a brake to slow the train down

234

When can you give potassium when correcting hypernatremic dehydration?

Potassium should be held until urine output is established

235

Na: 125
K: 4.0
Cl: 85
BUN: 25
Glucose: 90
Urine Specific Gravity: 1.025

Hyponatremic dehydration

236

Decreased sodium and chloride
Increased BUN and specific gravity

Hyponatremic dehydration

237

Na: 152
K: 4.0
Cl: 120
BUN: 25
Glucose: 90
Urine Specific Gravity: 1.025

Hypernatremic dehydration

238

Increased sodium, chloride, BUN, specific gravity

Hypernatremic dehydration

239

Na: 120
K: 4.0
Cl: 108
BUN: 15
Glucose: 650
Urine Specific Gravity: 1.015

Pseudo-hyponatremia

240

Decreased sodium
Markedly elevated glucose

Pseudo-hyponatremia

241

Na: 120
K: 4.0
Cl: 85
BUN: 5
Glucose: 90
Urine Specific Gravity: 1.025

SIADH

242

Decreased sodium, chloride, and BUN
Increased specific gravity

SIADH

243

Na: 152
K: 4.0
Cl: 120
BUN: 25
Glucose: 90
Urine Specific Gravity: 1.002

Diabetes insipidus

244

Increased sodium, chloride, BUN
Decreased specific gravity

Diabetes insipidus

245

Na: 120
K: 4.0
Cl: 108
BUN: 15
Glucose: 90
Urine Specific Gravity: 1.010

Lab error

246

Sodium is decreased
Chloride is normal

Lab error