Flashcards in Food and Culture - Midterm Religions Deck (88):
What is Hekhnsher?
-Mark labeled on food deeming the food kosher;
-Just be because these are on foods now days, doesn’t mean they are necessarily Kosher
What is Kashrut?
-Conveys what foods can/cannot be eaten by Jewish Law and how food should be prepared;
-Because the TORAH instructs
What is Kosher?
-Objects that are fit for Jewish ritual use, including foods
What is Pareve (par i veh)?
-Food that is neutral;
-Foods that have no rules (Not dairy or meat)
-If eggs have a blood spot, MAY NOT be consumed!!
What is Shechitah (shuh hee ta)?
Jewish ritual slaughter of an animal
What is Shochet (sho-khet)?
Jewish person performing the slaughter
What is Treifot (Tre-fa or Try-fa)?
-70 categories of injuries, disease, and abnormalities that render and animal NON-KOSHER
Jewish law for land mammals
-Kosher only if they have both qualities of cloven hooves and chewing its cud;
-This includes flesh organs, eggs, and milk of these animals = sheep, cattle, goats, and deer can be eaten;
-NON-KOSHER = pig, camel, hare, and rock badger
Jewish law for aquatic animals
-Must have fins or scales;
-Tuna, carp, salmon, and herring
-NON-KOSHER = shellfish such as, lobster, oysters, shrimp, clams, and crabs
Jewish law for birds
Birds of prey are forbidden;
-Turkey, chicken, ducks, and geese are all acceptable.
Other Jewish forbidden animals
-The only exception is bee’s honey
What is the Jewish law of Slaughter?
-Only the shochet (show het) may perform the Shechitah (sh’ khee tuh);
-Swift, deep stroke across the throat with a perfectly sharp blade; it is the most painless and humane procedure.
-Animals that have died from natural causes, killed by other animals, or have something from TREIFOT are considered non-kosher;
-Does NOT apply to fish
What is the Jewish law for Blood?
-All the blood must be drained or boiled out of the meat before it can be consumed;
-Any remaining blood must be removed by broiling, soaking or salting the meat;
-The final step must be performed no later that 72 hours after the animal was slaughtered and before the meat is frozen or ground;
-Fish blood doesn’t count as blood;
-The liver must be broiled due to its high blood content and complex blood vessels
What is Kosher Salt?
Coarse salt with large crystals that helps draw out fluid from muscle cells but adds sodium to the meat
Why can't Jews consume blood?
-The Torah prohibits the consumption of blood because the life of the animal is contained in the blood;
-The only exception is fish blood.
What parts of the animal may Jews not consume?
-The sciatic nerve and its adjoining blood vessels
-A certain type of fat known as chelev or heleb → Fat on the inside of the body cavity, so must be carefully removed
What is Milchig (Jew)?
What is Fleishig (Jew)?
What is the Jewish law of Milk and Meat?
-Meat from birds and mammals can’t be eaten with dairy;
-Must be at least 3-6 hours between eating dairy and meat because fatty residues and meat particles cling to the mouth;
-Poultry is considered meat;
-Animal fat is considered meat;
-No butter with your meat;
-No fish with meat but fish CAN be eaten with dairy;
-Fish, eggs, fruit, and vegetables MAY be eaten with dairy
What is the Jewish law for utensils?
-Utensils that are used for cooking meat may not be used with dairy products and vice versa;
-Kosher household will have two sets of pots, pans, and dishes;
-Kosher status can be transmitted from the food to the utensil only in the presence of heat
How do you handle countertops, stoves and dish ware in a kosher kitchen?
-Stovetops and sinks come in contact with both meat and dairy rendering them non-kosher. It is therefore important to use dishpans to soak dishes and spoon rests and trivets if placing something on the stovetop;
-For dishwashers, separate racks must be used for meat dishes and dairy dishes;
-Separate towels and potholders must be used when handling meat and dairy dishes
What is the Jewish law for grape products?
-Grape products made my NON-Jews CANNOT be consumed;
-Wine and grape juice may only be consumed if made by a Jew;
-Restrictions are derived from the laws against using products of idolatry;
-Whole grapes are not a problem
What is the problem with Cream of Tartar?
-Cream of Tartar in some baking powders can be a problem;
-Some baking powders are not kosher because they contain cream of tartar, a byproduct of wine making
How are Jewish symbols found on food packaging?
•~ ¾ of all packaged food have some kind of kosher certification
-Dairy marked with a “D” or the word “dairy” next to the KASHRUT symbol but it may not be;
-Most dairy is considered acceptable for consumption without the symbol;
-Not so for meat. If the product is meat, it’s usually marked with an “M” or the word “meat”;
-Most major brands have reliable Orthodox certification;
Remember the letter “K” does NOT necessarily symbolize kosher
What is the Jewish law for fruit from trees?
-One may not eat fruit of a tree in the first THREE years from the time of it’s planting;
-Just fruit from TREES
What must be take from all crops in the Land of Israel?
-TITHES must be taken from all crops;
-Wheat, barley, or fruit is not kosher until the commandments of TITHING have been fulfilled
What is the Jewish rule os TITHING?
-a TENTH part of agricultural or other produce, personal income, or profits, contributed either voluntarily or as a tax for the support of the church or clergy or for charitable purposes
What is the Jewish law surrounding all cooked foods?
-Any cooked food made by a non-Jew must be supervised to ensure no non-kosher foods were used
What is the benefit of Mindful Eating?
-Practiced by most religions;
-Taking the time to be aware of what is being consumed;
-Meals are times of prayer
-Mindful eating has been proven to show decreased obesity, better relationships with foods, stronger appreciation, established family bonds
What is the Jewish Shabbat?
-Their equivalent of the Sabbath;
-7th day of the Jewish week;
-A day of rest;
-Observed from sundown Friday until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night;
-God creating the Heavens and the Earth in six days, and resting on and sanctifying the seventh (Genesis 1:1-2:3).
What are the basic of the Shabbat?
-a festive day
-freed from work
-contemplate the spiritual
-spend time with family.
When are the 3 festive meals of the Shabbat?
-at lunch the next day;
-an end-of-Shabbat evening meal
What is NOT allowed on the Jewish Shabbat?
39 categories which include the use of =
-Electricity, even elevators;
-No money handling;
-No fire handling;
(Reform and reconstructionist say it depends on the belief of the individual)
What are the rules of the Shabbat candles?
-Once Shabbat candles are lit they may NOT be moved!!;
-Prepare in place where they will not be bothered or touched for the entirety of the Shabbat;
-Giver offering before lighting candles;
-Cannot put out the match or handle fire other than to light the candles → put on metal plate and let burn out;
-Cover eyes and say the blessings
What are the two forms of Jewish customs?
-Ashkenazi and Sephardic customs
What is the Jewish Passover and Seder?
-Celebration of the exodus from Egypt
What is included in the Seder plate?
*Children often help to prepare the plates as a reminder of the story.
What is Baytzah or Beitzah (Jewish Seder)?
-a hard-boiled egg, is symbolic of the regular festival sacrifice brought in the days of the Temple. It symbolizes loss or mourning for the Temple
What is Karpas (Jewish Seder)?
-A vegetable (parsley is generally used) to show the poor diet of the enslaved Jews;
-It is dipped in salt water to represent tears.
What is Maror (Jewish Seder)?
-Bitter herbs (horseradish root or prepared horseradish is generally used), represents the bitter life of the Israelites during the time of their enslavement in Egypt
What is the the Wine and a cup of Elijah (Jewish Seder)?
-Elijah is believed to be G-d’s messenger and a cup of wine is poured for him
(God is written with a dash because the word “God” cannot be written in the Jewish faith);
-Wine is consumed 4 times (for the four expressions of freedom);
-Spill a small amount of wine or dip a finger into the wine glass ten times: the Ten Plagues.
What is Matzoh?
-The only true Jewish food;
-Essential for Passover: 3 pieces covered with a cloth;
-Symbolizes the hurry with which the Jews fled Egypt;
-The bread of affliction;
-Water CANNOT come into contact with the yeast at any amount of time that would allow FERMENATION! NO!!
When is the Jewish FAST?
-Yom Kippur = no food or water sundown to sundown: 25 hours;
When can Jewish Fasts be BROKEN?
-Fasts can be broken if it’s dangerous to a person’s health;
-A person with diabetes would not be able to fast;
-A pregnant or nursing woman would not fast;
-Some medications would make it dangerous to fast
When are the Jewish FEASTS?
-Purim: Revelry = Persian jews were saved;
-Passover: Seder = freed from Egypt;
-Shavuot: cheese is nice, blintzes = God gave the Torah;
-Rosh Hashanah = New Year has many symbolic food;
-Sukkot: a hut is built = pilgrimage to Jerusalem;
-Hanukkah: it is NOT “like Christmas” - Lighting candles and eating latkes for 8 days = rededication of the 2nd Holy Templee
Who are the followers of Islam?
-Muslim means: Submission to the will of the Creator;
-The will of the Creator is revealed in the Qur’an
What is Halal (Islam)?
-ISLAMIC foods that are lawful or permitted for the observant to consume;
-First condition of Halal is that food and drink be lawful;
The lawful things encompass not only the non-forbidden items, but it also means that the items must have been lawfully acquired;
-They could not have been acquired through theft or cheating
What is Haram (Islam)?
-ISLAMIC foods that are FORBIDDEN;
-not permitted, not allowed, unauthorized, unapproved, unsanctioned, unlawful, illegal, illegitimate or illicit”;
-Contains, or comes in contact with animals not slaughtered ZABIHAH
What is Mushbooh (Islam)?
ISLAMIC food that is doubtful or questionable;
Muslims who are exceedingly strict may reject ALL mashbooh items;
-Certain sects within the faith will also reject some mashbooh items that other Muslims would accept;
What is Tayyib?
-The second condition of Haram;
-Literally means for items to be GOOD;
-Pleasant, delightful, delicious or sweet in addition to the sense of pure and clear;
-The Qur’an links the physical and spiritual sides of man. Errors committed in the physical realm are reflected in the spiritual.
What are other conditions of Haram?
-Avoid excess and embrace self-denial and asceticism;
-Eating is considered worship;
-It is desirable to eat only 2/3’s capacity;
-Sharing meals is recommended;
-The hands and mouth are washed before and after meals;
-Food is never wasted
When may animals NOT be consumed in Islam?
-Died by natural causes or another animal;
-All beasts of prey;
-All birds of prey;
-Tame asses but not wild ones.;
-The mule, but not the horse;
-Vermin: Rats, snakes and scorpions. If they are poisonous or they are harmful, they are forbidden
-Weasel, pelicans, kites, insects (other than locusts), carrion eating birds (birds of prey), hyenas, foxes, elephants and crocodiles.;
-There is disagreement over the status of the lizard.
What is the Islamic law of Blood?
-Reflects early Christian prohibitions on the use of blood as a food
What is Fisq?
-In Islam, to perform a major sin or persist upon a lesser sin;
-The Islamic religion fiercely opposes idolatry and use of images;
-This prohibition also addresses the slaughter of animals.
Other forbidden Islamic foods laws
-Eating raw onions or garlic, if one is going to mosque or out in public, is also discouraged lest one give offense to others (However, a Muslim student of mine told me this is not practiced)
What problems might be related with Food technology?
-Technology of today can create a product that is FAR REMOVED from its origins;
-It can be very difficult to determine whether common food products are allowable.
Does Kosher mean it is acceptable to Muslims?
-Kosher allows only the meats of the FOREQUARTER;
-The ritual slaughter performed is likely to be UNACCEPTABLE to the Muslim of today;
-The kosher slaughter ritual distinctly DOES NOT include the "name of God."
-It is true that the Quran allows for use of animals slaughtered by the other "peoples of the book", however this reflects the practices of the time when the Quran was written, not modern practice.
What does Islam mean?
-Arabic word meaning “the submission or surrender of one’s will to Allah (God)”;
-PRAYER is considered by the Muslim people to be the Foundation of Religion
What are some traditional Islamic foods?
-Since Islam is now all over the world many food ways are different;
-Mint tea, Lemon tea;
-Spices = cardamom, cumin, turmeric;
-Kuch which are rich and flavored with palm sugar and coconut.
What are some Islamic trade items?
-A few food items traded were rice, sugar, and coffee and others cinnamon sticks, peppercorns, nutmeg, ginger, cherries, tea leaves, green coffee beans, and apricots;
-Many food ways have stayed the same because trade is available for native foods.
What is a modern problem associated with Islamic foods?
-Traditional Muslim foods are more EXPENSIVE → This affects the decision of choosing between Americanized foods and traditional foods
What is Zabihah?
The ritual Muslim slaughtering of animals for consumption
What animals are NOT allowed for Islamic consumption?
-Animals who died by strangulation, a blow to the head (as in clubbing), a headlong fall, natural causes (carrion), or were maimed or attacked by another animal;
-Animals having protruding canine teeth such as monkeys, cats, and lions;
-Pig, Dog, Donkey or Carnivores;
-Amphibious animals such as frogs, crocodiles, and turtles;
-Undesirable insects such as worms, flies, and cockroaches;
-Birds of prey with talons such as owls, and eagles
What drinks are forbidden in Islam?
-Alcohol, harmful substances, poisonous and intoxicating plants or drinks
What is Ramadan?
-All Muslims participate in FASTING during the month of Ramadan;
-During this holy month families wake up every morning before dawn to eat a bountiful breakfast = SHUUR;
-Next meal is after sunset on this day;
-From sunrise to sunset people must abstain from food and liquids;
-Since the Islamic year is based off of the lunar calendar, Ramadan can occur during any season;
-Ramadan begins when the new moon is visible on the ninth month
When is Fasting for Ramadan allowed to be broken in Islam?
-People who are unable to fast because of illness, pregnancy, or breastfeeding are asked to feed the poor and hungry.
How do Ramadan meals change with the seasons?
-When Ramadan occurs during the winter, dinner meals are lighter and not as plentiful;
-When Ramadan occurs in the summer dinner is hearty
What are Fanous?
The lamps of Ramadan
What is Id al-Fitr?
-Festival that marks the END of Ramadan;
-BEGINS on the first day of the tenth month in the Islamic calendar;
-People send cards and spend the last week of Ramadan preparing for Id al-Fitr;
-Festivities begin after the NEW MOON is seen;
-Communal celebration in countries that are primarily Islamic
What does Id al-Fitr mean?
-“Id” means “a festival of happiness and a time of great joy
How is Id al-Fitr celebrated differently in the United States?
-Many Muslims who live here do not have their families close to them;
-NOT considered a holiday in the United States, so Muslims are limited to celebration;
-Many celebrate at night after work and school;
-Those with own business may close for the day or half a day if possible;
-Some areas of the United States where there are large Muslim communities Id carnivals may be held;
-Foods are typically the same from any Muslim kitchen
What is Ummah?
-The worldwide family of Muslim;
-It is more important to be a Muslim than the country or race of the Muslim;
**Great sense of community;
-Islam encourages followers to be sociable because of the teachings of Muhammad emphasizes it;
-Guests should be invited to meals whenever possible.
What is the daily life of a Muslim mother?
-A Muslim woman’s main role is to bring up a happy family;
-Her work in the home is considered to be just as important as the father’s job.
What is the daily life/concern of a Muslim father?
-Fathers main responsibilities are to provide income and protection for his family.
What is the relationship between husband/wife or mother/father for Muslims?
-Regarded as a duty for the parents to bring their children up to become good Muslims;
-Symbolic delivery for each baby born;
-Marriage is viewed as a joining of two families, not just two people
How does the relationship between Islamic men and women differ from that of the US?
-Men should be covered from the waist to the knees;
-Some men also grow beards to cover their faces;
-Women should be covered from the head down;
-Some women wear a full-length dress and scarf over their head (HIJAB);
-Men DO NOT touch women other than their wives and daughter b/c it is seen as temptation
What is Hinduism?
-Oldest religion but not an organized religion;
-A very inclusive and peaceful way of life.
Why is Hinuism not considered organized?
-There wasn’t a founder;
-There are no profits;
-There are MANY different sects that worship in dissimilar ways from each other. (divided by birthright)
What are the 3 principle Hindu gods?
-Brahma- created the universe
-Vishnu- preserves the universe
-Shiva or Siva- destroys the universe
What are the main principles of Hinduism?
Purity, self-control, detachment, truth, and non-violence:
-Purity and cleanliness are very important!!
-Detachment from WORLDLY things
-Self-control and no indulgence = Have very little control over what happens in your life, but are still expected to practice self-control
-Non-violence → Ahimsa – to do no harm to all living things if it can be avoided; won’t be punished, but it is expected
What are the dietary restrictions of Hindus?
-All products from a COW are sacred, therefore NOT to be consumed - Except milk and ghee;
-Most are vegetarian; some strict and some lacto-ovo (Based on Non-violence);
-Do not drink alcohol
-Garlic, turnips, leeks, mushrooms and red-hued foods may be avoided
-Foods that are prepared by “UNCLEAN” people are not to be consumed
-Different sects of Hinduism that have their own;
-Difference in the strictness in diet between Western and Eastern Hindus
-Purity is a major concern for Hindus
What is Ashima?
the avoidance of pain inflicted upon animals
What makes the Cow so sacred?
-provide dung as a fuel source
-power the tiller
-Provide milk, ghee
-Provides skin as cloth when dies from natural causes
= so much more than beef for slaughter
What is Ghee?
-Butter fat made from milk that is shelf stable → Considered cleansing;
-Ghee can cleanse food deemed forbidden,
What is Hindu Moderation and Discipline?
-Don’t eat too late, too early or too much
-No sin to do exciting things but abstinence yields a better result → But in all ways should exhibit self-control
-Alcohol should be avoided because it leads to a loss of self-control
-Ahimsa: inflict no pain
When are the Hindu FEASTS?
-Feasts days are centered on sharing food among the population and are the few chances that the very poor have to eat adequate proportions;
-Hindus have 18 festivals per year;
-Births, deaths, and marriages are treated as FEST days;
-The wealthy are responsible for helping the poor celebrate the holidays
How do Hindus FAST?
-May include complete fast or abstaining from certain foods or meals;
-Strictness varies among castes, sex, age, and degree of orthodoxy