Physiology - Exam 3, Deck #1 - Skeletal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology - Exam 3, Deck #1 - Skeletal Deck (149):

What are Long Bones?

-Have long longitudinal axes and expanded ends; EX: Forearm and thigh bones


What are Short Bones?

-Are somewhat cubelike with their lengths and widths roughly equal;
-EX. Bones of wrists and ankles


What are Flat Bones?

Are platelike structures with broad surfaces
-EX: the ribs, scapulae, and some bones of the skull


What are Irregular Bones?

Have a variety of shapes and are usually connected to several other bones;
-EX: Vertebrae that comprise the backbone and many facial bones


What are Sesamoid or Round Bones?

-Usually small and nodular and are embedded within tendons adjacent to joints, where the tendons are compressed;
EX. Kneecap or patella


What are the part of a Long Bone?

1. Epiphysis (distal/ proximal)
2. Diaphysis
3. Compact bone
4. Spongy bone
5. Articular cartilage
6. Periosteum
7. Endosteum
8. Medullary cavity
9. Trabeculae
10. Marrow (red/yellow)


What is the Epiphysis?

-Expanded portion at each end; articulates (or forms a joint) with another bone;
-Articular cartilage covers
-Largely composed of spongy bone, or cancellous bone, with layers of compact bone on their surfaces


What is Articular Cartilage of long bones?

A layer of HYALINE cartilage which coats the outer surface of the articulating portion of the epiphysis


What is Spongy of Cancellous Bone?

Spongy bone consists of many branching plates called TRABECULAE;
-Trabeculae are most highly developed in the regions of the epiphysis that are subjected to compressive fractures


What is the Diaphysis of Long Bones?

The shaft of the bone which is located between the epiphyses;
-Wall is mostly composed of tightly packed tissue called compact bone, or cortical bone; has a continuous matrix with no gaps


What is the Medullary Cavity of Long Bone

Compact bone in the diaphysis of a long bone forms a semirigid tube with a hollow chamber called the MEDULLARY CAVITY that is continuous with the spaces of the spongy bone


What is found in the Medullary Cavity?

1. Endosteum – is a thin membrane containing bone-forming cells; lines the medullary cavity
2. Marrow is a specialized type of soft connective tissue that fills the cavity
—Red marrow = hemopoietic – forms red blood cells, white blood cells, blood platelets
—Yellow marrow = stores fat and is inactive in blood cell production


What is the Periosteum of long bones?

The tough, vascular COVERING of fibrous tissue over all of the bone EXCEPT for the articular cartilage area of the epiphysis


What are Processes of long bones?

Bony projections that provide sites for attachment of ligaments and tendons


What are Osteocytes?

-Bone Cells;
-Located in tiny, bony chambers called LACUNAE, which form concentric circles around central canals (Haversian canals)


What are Haversian Canals?

Canals around which osteocytes and lacunae encircle


What are Canaliculi?

Small passageway though which Osteocytes transport nutrients and wastes to and from nearby cells by means of cellular processes


What is the main intercellular material in bones?

-The intercellular material of bone tissue is largely COLLAGEN and INORGANIC SALTS;
-Collagen gives bone its strength and resilience, and inorganic salts make it hard and resistant to crushing


How are the osteocytes (cells) of COMPACT Bone arranged?

-The osteocytes and layers of intercellular material are concentrically clustered around a central canal form a cylinder shaped unit called an OSTEON, sometimes called the Haversian system;
-Many of these units cemented together form the substance of compact bone


What is found in the central canals of Compact Bone?

-Each central canal contains blood vessels and nerve fibers surrounded by loose connective tissue which nourishes bone cells associated with the central canal via GAP JUNCTIONS;
-Central canals pervade bone tissue LONGITUDINALLY
Transverse perforating canals (Volkmann’s canals) interconnect them


What are Transverse Perforation Canals (Volkmann’s Canals) of Compact Bone?

Interconnect the central canals found within compact bone


What is the structure of SPONGY BONE?

-Spongy bone is composed of osteocytes and intercellular material, but the bone cells DO NOT AGGREGATE around central canals;
-The cells lie within the trabeculae and get nutrients from substances diffusing into the canaliculi that lead to the surface of these thin bony plates


What are the 2 ways bones form?

1. INTRAMEMBRANOUS bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissue
2. ENDOCHONDRAL bones begin as masses of cartilage that are later replaced by bone tissue


What is involved Intramembranous Ossification?

1. Bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues
2. Broad, flat bones
3. kull bones (except mandible)
4. Intramembranous bones


What is involved in Endochondral Ossification?

1. Bones begin as hyaline cartilage
2. Most bones of the skeleton
3. Endochondral bones


What are Intramembranous Bones?

-The broad, flat, bones of the skull;
-During their development (tissues appear at the sites of the future bones (OSTEOGENESIS), membranelike layers of unspecialized or primitive, connective tissue


What are Osteoblasts?

-Bone-forming cells that deposit bony matrix around themselves


Where does Spongy Bone form?

-Spongy bone forms in all directions along blood vessels, within the layer of primitive connective tissue;
-As development continues, the osteoblasts may become completely surrounded by matrix;
-They become secluded in lacunae


What are Osteocytes?

Osteoblasts that have been secluded in the lacunae


Where does the Periosteum come from?

-Cells of the primitive connective tissue that persist OUTSIDE the developing bone give rise to the periosteum;
-Osteocytes on the INSIDE of the periosteum form a layer of COMPACT BONE over the surface of the newly formed spongy bone


What is Intramembranous Ossification?

Process of replacing connective tissue with bone to form an intramembranous bone


What are Endochondral Bones?

**MOST bones of the skeleton;
-Develop from HYALINE cartilage shaped like the future bone = Endochondral Ossification


What is involved in the process of Endocholdral Ossification?

*Forming Endochondral bones =
1. Hyaline Cartilage tissues break down as PERIOSTEUM develops;
1. Blood vessels and differentiating osteoblasts from the periosteum invade the disintegrating tissue;
3. Osteoblasts form SPONGY BONE in the space occupied by cartilage;
4. Osteoblasts become osteocytes when bony matrix completely surrounds them;
5. Osteoblasts beneath the periosteum deposit COMPACT BONE around spongy bone


What is the Primary Ossification Center?

-Center of the diaphysis of bones where bony tissue replaces the Hyaline Cartilage;
-Bone then develops outward towards the ends;
-Osteoblasts (from periosteum) deposit compact bone around spongy bone


What is the Secondary Ossification Center?

**Epiphyses (ends) remain growing cartilage until maturity;
-The Secondary Ossification Center appears at the epiphyses as spongy bone forms


What is an Epiphyseal Plate?

- or Metaphysis;
-A band of cartilage that remain between the two ossification centers as spongy bone is deposited in the diaphysis and in the epiphysis


What are the characteristics of Endochondral Ossification?

-Hyaline cartilage model;
-Primary ossification center = center of bone;
-Secondary ossification centers = at the epiphyses (ends);
-Epipyseal plate = between the ossification centers;
-Osteoblasts = make new bone;
-Osteoclasts = breakdown bone


What is the arrangement of the Epiphyseal Plate?

The cartilaginous cells of the epiphyseal plate appear in FOUR layers, each of which may be several cell layers thick


First Layer of the Epiphyseal Plate

-CLOSEST to the end of the epiphysis;
-Composed of resting cells that DO NOT actively participate in growth;
-Anchors the epiphyseal plate to the bony tissue of the epiphysis


Second Layer of the Epiphyseal Plate

Contains rows of many YOUNG cells undergoing MITOSIS


Third Layer of the Epiphyseal Plate

-Rows of OLDER cells which are left behind when new cells appear;
-Enlarge and thicken the epiphyseal plate;
-Invading OSTEOBLASTS, which secrete calcium salts, accumulate in the intercellular matrix adjacent to the oldest cartilaginous cells
-As the matrix CALCIFIES, the cells begin to die


Fourth Layer of the Epiphyseal Plate

Quite THIN and composed of DEAD cells and intercellular matrix


What are Osteoclasts?

-Large multinucleated cells that BREAK DOWN the calcified matrix;
-Originate by the fusion of single-nucleated white blood cells called MONOCYTES


How do Osteoclasts breakdown bone?

-Osteoclasts secrete an ACID that dissolves the inorganic component of the calcified matrix, and their lysosomal enzymes digest the organic component;
-Osteoclasts also PHAGOCYTIZE components of the bony matrix


What happens after Osteoclasts remove the matrix?

After osteoclasts remove the matrix, bone-building OSTEOBLASTS invade the region and deposit bone tissue in place of the calcified cartilage


For how long do “Long Bones” lengthen?

A long bone continues to LENGTHEN while the cartilaginous cells of the epiphyseal plate are ACTIVE;
-Once the ossification centers of the diaphysis and epiphysis meet and the epiphyseal plates OSSIFY, lengthening is no longer possible in that end of the bone


How do bones THICKEN?

-A developing bone thickens as COMPACT bone is deposited on the OUTSIDE, just beneath the periosteum;
-As compact bone forms on the surface, osteoclasts erode other bone tissue on the inside


What is the Medullary Cavity of Long Bones?

-Space within the diaphysis;
-The inner bone tissue of bone is eroded away by OSTEOCLASTS as compact bone develops and thickens on the outside leaving the medullary cavity


What type of bone remains in the CENTER of the bone?

The bone in the central regions of the epiphysis and diaphysis remains SPONGY


What is Articular Cartilage?

The hyaline cartilage on the ends of the epiphyses that persists throughout life


What can occur if a CHILD’s bone is damaged?

-A child’s long bones are still growing if a radiograph shows EPIPHYSEAL PLATES;
-If a plate is damaged as a result of a fracture BEFORE OSSIFICATION, elongation of that bone may prematurely cease, or if growth continues, it may be uneven


How can Epiphyseal Plate damaged be fixed?

An epiphysis is sometimes altered surgically in order to equalize growth of bones that are developing at different rates


What effect can CANCER have on bone tissue?

BONE CANCERS = abnormally active osteoclasts destroy bone tissue;
-PROSTATE CANCER can have the opposite effect than cancer cells stimulating ostoblast activity = Promotes formation of NEW bone on the surface of the bony trabeculae


What maintains homeostasis of bone tissue?

After bones are formed, the actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts continually remodel them
1. Osteoclasts resorb bone tissue;
2. Osteoblasts replace the bone
**3-5% of bone calcium is replaced per year


Osteoblasts vs. Osteoclasts

-Osteoblast activity is HIGHER than osterclast activity until age 35 = more replaced bone
-AFTER 35 osteoclast activity is higher than osteoblast activity for the remainder of life = more bone breakdown


What is Bone Resportion?

action of osteoclasts and parathyroid hormone


What is Bone Deposition?

action of osteoblasts and calcitonin


What is Osteoporosis?

*Decreased bone matrix!!
-Most common of all bone diseases in adults, especially in old age;
-Results from diminished organic bone MATRIX rather than poor bone calcification (which would be osteomalacia and rickets)
**Due to a PROTEIN deficiency


What cellular activity Osteoporosis?

In osteoporosis, the osteoblastic activity in the bone usually is LESS than normal, and consequently the rate of bone osteoid deposition is depressed.;
-Occasionally, as in hyperparathyroidism, the cause of the diminished bone is excess osteoclastic activity


What are the common causes of Osteoporosis?

1. Lack of physical stress on the bones because of inactivity
2. Malnutrition to the extent that sufficient protein matrix can not be formed
3. Lack of Vitamin C, which is necessary for the the secretion of intercellular substances by all cells, including the formation of osteoid by the osteoblasts
4. POSTmenoposal lack of estrogen secretion because the lack of estrogen decrease the number and activity of osteoblasts
5. PREmenopausal women who have a very low percentage of body fat and amenorrhea can also have osteoporosis
6. Old Age
7. Cushing Syndrome


Why does Osteoporosis develop with old age?

As people age, growth hormone and other growth factors diminish greatly;
-Plus the fact that many of the protein anabolic functions also deteriorate with age, so that bone matrix can not be deposited satisfactorily


How does Cushing Syndrome cause Osteoporosis?

-Because massive quantities of glucocorticoids secreted in this disease cause decreased deposition of protein and have the specific effect of depressing osteoblastic activity


How is Osteoporosis diagnoses?

-Can be difficult;
-RADIOGRAPH may not reveal a decrease in bone density until 20-30% of the bone tissue is lost;
-NONINVASIVE diagnostic techniques, however, can detect rapid changes in bone mass;
-INVASIVE technique = Biopsy of a bone sample from the hip bone


What are the Noninvasive techniques for diagnosing Osteoporosis?

1. A densitometer scanner = measures the density of WRIST bones
2. Quantitative computorized tomography can visualize the density of other bones


What treatments can slow osteoporosis?

1. Teenage girlsshould eat such calcium rich food (dairy products) to gain max bone mass;
2. Calcium supps and other dietary changes for women prior to menopause;
3. Workouts with light weights is strongly recommended for women
4. Estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women helps to prevent bone loss and reduces the risk of ischemic heart disease;
5. Drugs that inhibit bone reabsorption, including calcitonin (from salmon) (Fosamax) administered by injection or nasal spray


What Vitamins affect bone development?

-Vitamin D;
-Vitamin A;
-Vitamin C


Vitamin D and Bone Health

-ABSENCE – Calcium is poorly absorbed causing the inorganic salt portion of the bone matrix to be soft and the bones are deformed;
-Children – rickets
-Adults – osteomalacia
-Sources – eggs, fortified milk and dairy products, endogenous and converted by sunlight


Vitamin A and Bone Health

-Necessary for osteoblast and osteoclast activity during normal bone development


Vitamin V and Bone Health

Required for collagen synthesis


What hormones affect bone development?

1. Growth hormone;
2. Thyroid hormones;
3. Parathyroid hormones;
4. Calcitonin;
5. Androgens/Estrogens


Growth Hormones and Bone Health

-Secreted by Ant. Pit. and stimulates the division of cartilage cells in the epiphyseal plates;
--Children- the long bones of the limbs fail to develop normally and the child has pituitary dwarfism
--Short but normal body proportions
**Treated with HGH from bacteria


What results from excess Growth Hormone?

-Children before the epiphyseal plates ossify, height may exceed 8 feet = PITUITARY GIGANTISM;
-Adults = ACROMEGALY in which the hands, feet, and jaw enlarge


How does Growth Hormones regulate bone growth?

-Growth of skeleton occurs first as growth of cartilage at epiphyseal discs which then become converted to bone;
-Mediated by IGF-1 & 2 which stimulate chondrocytes to divide & secrete more cartilaginous matrix;
-Growth stops when epiphyseal discs are ossified


What is Gigantism?

Gigantism produced by excess GH secretion in children


What is Dwafism?

Dwarfism caused by inadequate secretion of GH during childhood


What is Acromegaly?

-Excess GH secretion in ADULTS, after epiphyseal discs are ossified, results in acromegaly;
-There is no increase in height;
-But soft tissue still grows;
= Causing elongation of jaw, deformities in hands, feet, & bones of face


Thyroid Hormone and Bone Health

Thyroid hormones can halt bone growth by causing premature ossification of the epiphyseal plate


Parathormone and Bone Health

Parathormone stimulates an increase in the number and activity of osteoclasts →↑ blood calcium;


Calcitonin and Bone Health

-Secreted by C cells of thyroid gland;
-Works with PTH & 1,25 Vit D3 to regulate blood Ca2+ levels;
-Stimulated by increased plasma Ca2+;
-Stimulates increased osteoblast activity and deposition of calcium into the bone matrix
-Inhibits activity of osteoclasts;
-Stimulates urinary excretion of Ca2+ & P043- by inhibiting reabsorption;
-Physiological significance in adults is not understood


Androgens/Estrogens and Bone Health

-Androgens and estrogens PROMOTE the formation of bone tissue =
-Stimulate ossification of the epiphyseal plate, and consequently they stop bone lengthening at a relatively young age;
-Because a greater effect of estrogens on the epiphyseal plate ossification than androgens, females typically reach their maximum heights earlier than males


What is stored within the Skeleton?

Skeleton is a storage reservoir for calcium & phosphate;
-Bone is hardened with calcium phosphate crystals = HYDROXYAPATITE ;


What alters the Hydroxyapatite crystals?

-Osteoblasts make bone by 1st secreting a matrix of collagen which becomes hardened by DEPOSITION of hydroxyapatite;
-Osteoclasts reabsorb bone by secreting enzymes to DISSOLVE matrix & hydroxyapatite


What is Parathyroid Hormone? (PTH)

-Form parathyroid glands;
-**Most important hormone in control of Ca2+ levels;
-Release is stimulated by low blood Ca2+ levels;
-Stimulates osteoclasts to reabsorb bone;
-Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb Ca2+ from filtrate, & inhibits reabsorption of P043-;
-Promotes formation of 1,25 Vit D3;
-Many cancers secrete PTH-related protein that interacts with PTH receptors producing hypercalcemia (high blood calcium)


How does Estrogen affect bones?

-Causes epiphyseal discs (cartilaginous growth plates) to SEAL (ossify) which stops growth;
-Is necessary for proper bone mineralization & prevention of osteoporosis;
-Stimulates osteoblast activity & suppresses formation of osteoclasts


What is Hematopoiesis?

The process of blood cell formation;
1. Begins in the yolk sac which is an extra embryonic membrane;
2. Later in development – liver and spleen;
3. Later – bone marrow


What is Marrow?

A soft network mass of connective tissue within the medullary cavities of long bones, in the irregular spaces of spongy bone , and in the larger central canals of compact bone tissue
-Types = Red and Yellow


What is the function of Red Bone Marrow?

Functions in the formation of red blood cells (hemoglobin), white blood cells, and blood platelets


Where is Red Bone Marrow found?

-Occupies the cavities of most bones in an infant;
-With increasing age, yellow marrow replaces much of it;
-Adult – red marrow is primarily found in the spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and pelvis


What is the function of Yellow Marrow?

Stores fat and is inactive in blood cell formation;
-If the blood supply is deficient, some yellow marrow may change back into red marrow and produce blood cells


What is Procrit?

A SYNTHETIC erythropoietin, stimulates the rate of red blood cell formation


What is found in the Intracellular Matrix of bone?

The intercellular matrix of bone tissue contains collagen and inorganic mineral salts;
-The salts account for about 70% of the matrix by weight and are mostly tiny crystals of a type of calcium phosphate called HYDROXYAPATITE;
-Contains lesser amounts of magnesium, sodium, potassium, and carbonate ions;
-Can accumulate certain harmful metals such as lead, radium, and strontium


What metabolic processes require Calcium?

-Blood clot formation;
-Nerve impulse conduction- neurotransmitter release;
-Muscle contraction- excitation-contraction coupling


How does Physical Stress affect bone growth?

Physical stress also stimulates bone growth;
--when skeletal muscles contract, they pull at their attachments on bones, and the resulting stress stimulates the bone tissue to thicken and strengthen = HYPERTROPHY;
--with a lack of exercise, the same bone tissue wastes, becoming thinner and weaker = ATROPHY;
-It is why fractured bones immobilized in casts may atrophy


What is Traumatic Fracture?

a break due to injury


What is a Spontaneous or pathologic fracture?

a break due to disease


What is a Compound (open) fracture?

a broken bone exposed to the outside by an OPENING in the skin


What is a Closed Fracture?

a break protected by UNOPENED skin


What is a Greenstick Fracture?

Incomplete, and the break occurs on the convex surface of the bend in the bone


What is a Transverse Fracture?

Complete, and the break occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone


What isa Fissured Fracture?

An incomplete longitudinal break


What is an Oblique Fracture?

Occurs at an angle other than a right angle to the axis of the bone


What is a Comminuted Fracture?

Complete and fragments the bone


What is a Spiral Fracture?

Caused by twisting a bone excessively


What happens to the vessels with a fracture?

Whenever a bone breaks, blood vessels within it and its periosteum rupture, and the periosteum is likely to tear ;
-Escaping blood forms a blood clot, or HEMATOMA;
-Vessels in surrounding tissues dilate, swelling and inflaming tissues;
-Within days or weeks, developing blood vessels and large numbers of OSTEOBLASTS ORIGINATING FROM THE PERIOSTEUM invade the hematoma


How do the Osteoblasts clear the Hematoma?

-The osteoblasts divide rapidly and build spongy bone nearby;
-Granulation tissue develops, and in regions further from a blood supply, fibroblasts produce masses of FIBROCARTILAGE;
-Meanwhile, phagocytic cells begin to remove the blood clot as well as any dead or damaged cells in the affected area;
-OSTEOCLASTS also appear and resorb bone fragments, aiding in “cleaning up” debris


What is a Cartillagenous Callus?

Mass of FIBROCARTILAGE that fills the gap between the ends of broken bones


What develops from a Cartillagenous Callus?

-Will eventually be replaced by bone tissue in much the same way that the hyaline cartilage of a developing endochondral bone is replaced ;
-Typically, more bone is produced at the site of a healing fracture than is necessary to replace the damaged tissues


What can be used to help the fracture heal faster?

**Need to be CLOSE together;
1. Casts and set bones (1876)
2. Screws and plates
3. Rods, wires and nails – smaller, lighter, built of titanium
4. HYBRID FIXATOR – treats a broken leg using metal pins internally to align bone pieces = the pins are anchored to a metal ring worn outside the leg


What bones heal the fastest?

Some bones naturally heal more rapidly than others;
-The long bones of the UPPER limbs, for example, may heal in half the time than the long bones of the lower limbs;
-Broken bones heal more rapidly in YOUNG people than in old people


What is the function of Bones?

1. Bones shape, support, and protect body structures;
2. Act as levers that support body movements;
3. Produce blood cells = Hematopoiesis in Red marrow;
4. Store various inorganic salts


What bones give SHAPE?

head, face, thorax, limbs


What bones provide SUPPORT and PROTECTION?

1. Bones of the lower limbs, pelvis, and vertebral column support the bodies weight;
2. Skull protects the eyes, ears, and brain;
3. Rib cage and shoulder girdle protect the heart and lungs
4. Pelvic girdle protects the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs


Bones and Body Movement

-Interacts with muscles;
-Bones act as rigid bar of a lever


What Inorganic Salt Storage is in Bones?

1. calcium phosphate
2. magnesium
3. sodium
4. potassium


How do bones act as LEVERS?

Whenever limbs or other body parts move, bones and muscles interact as simple mechanical devices called Levers


What are the 4 basic components of a Lever?

1. A rigid bar or rod = BONE
2. A pivot or fulcrum on which the bar turns = JOINT
3. An object that is moved against resistance
4. A force that supplies energy for the movement of the bar = MUSCLES


What is a FIRST-Class Lever?

Resistance-pivot-force = scissors
EX: Upper limb straightens


What is a SECOND-Class Lever?

Pivot-resistance-force = wheelbarrow
EX: Opening Jaw


What is a THIRD-Class Lever?

Resistance-force-pivot = eyebrow tweezers or forceps


How is the Elbow a Lever?

Bend =
— Forearm bones = rigid bar
— Elbow joint = pivot
— Hands weight = resistance
— Force supplied by muscles of the anterior arm; one = biceps brachii
THIRD CLASS = resistance-force-pivot


What are the functions of the Joints?

1. Articulations;
2. Junctions between bones;
3. Bind parts of skeletal system together;
4. Make bone growth possible;
5. Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth;
6. Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction


What are the classifications of Joints?

1. Fibrous
2. Cartilagenous
3. Synovial


What are Fibrous Joints?

- Dense connective tissues connect bones;
-Between bones in close contact;
-Types =
1. Syndesmosis
2. Suture
3. Gomphosis


Syndesmosis Fibrous Joints

-Long fibers connect bones;
-Amphiarthrotic = SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE;
EX: Distal ends of tibia and fibula
(distal = away from the bodY


Suture Fibrous Joints

-Between flat bones;
-Synarthrotic = IMMOVABLE;
-Thin layer of connective tissue connects bones


Gomphosis Fibrous Joints

Cone-shaped bony;
-Process in a socket;
-Synarthrotic = IMMOVABLE;
EX: Tooth in jawbone


What are Cartilaginous Joints?

-Hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones;
-Types =
1. Synchondrosis
2. Symphysis


Synchondrosis Cartilaginous Joints

-Bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones;
-Epiphyseal plate (temporary);
-Synarthrotic = IMMOVABLE;
EX: Between manubrium and first rib


Symphysis Cartilaginous Joints

-Pad of fibrocartilage between bones;
-Joint between bodies of vertebrae;
-Amphiarthrotic = SLIGHTLY MOVABLE;
EX: pubis symphysis


What are Synovial Joints?

-Most complex;
-Allow FREE movement;
- Types =
1. Ball-and-Socket
2. Condyloid Joint
3. Gliding Joint
4. Hinge Joint
5. Pivot Joint
6. Saddle Joint


What are the parts of Synovial Joints?

-Diarthrotic = FREELY MOVABLE;
-Joint cavity;
-Synovial fluid;
-Joint capsule;
-Synovial membrane;


Ball-and-Socket Synovial Joints



Condyloid Synovial Joints

-Between metacarpals and phalanges (knuckles of the mid-finger)


Gliding Synovial Joints

-Between Carpals (at wrist);
-Between Tarsals


Hinge Synovial Joints

-Between phalanges


Pivot Synovial Joints

-Between proximal and of radius and ulna (close to the body at shoulder)


Saddle Synovial Joints

-Between carpal and metacarpal of thumb


What are the components of the Shoulder joint?

-Head of humerus;
-Glenoid cavity of scapula;
-Loose joint capsule = 180 degrees;
-Ligaments prevent;
-Very wide range of movement


What is the major injury to the shoulder?

-Rotator Cuff/Labrum– those people that do repeated motion tend to tear the cuff;
-Main injury of the shoulder


What are the components of the Elbow joint?

-HINGE joint = trochlea of humerus + trochlear notch of ulna — gives ROM;
-GLIDING joint = capitulum of humerus + head of radius;
-Flexion and extension;
-Many reinforcing ligaments;
-STABLE joint


What is the major injury to the Elbow?

-at the Gliding Joint (capitulum of humerus + head of radius);
-Injured angular ligament — Repaired by Tommy John’s surgery


Who developed Tommy John’s Surgery?

William Andrews developed the surgery;
-Basically tacks another tendon and inserts it to tighten up the junction;
-A lot of times a pitchers velocity will increase post-surgery


What are the components of the Hip joint?

-Ball-and-socket joint;
-Head of femur;
-Heavy joint capsule = a lot of reinforcing ligaments to hold it in place (unlike the shoulder);
-Many reinforcing ligaments;
-Less freedom of movement than shoulder joint


What requires hip replacement surgery?

A break can occur right below the head of the femur or the femur with crack = Hip replacement surgery


What are the components of the Knee Joint?

-Largest joint;
-Most complex;
-Medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur;
-Medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia;
-Femur articulates anteriorly with patella;
-Modified hinge joint;
-Flexion/extension/little rotation;
-Strengthened by many ligaments and tendons;
-Menisci separate femur and tibia;


How do joints change throughout life?

-Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging;
-Regular exercise can prevent stiffness;
-FIBROUS joints first to strengthen over a lifetime;
-Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish;
-Flexibility and decrease height;
-SYNOVIAL joints lose elasticity


What are Sprains?

-Damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints;
-Forceful twisting of joint


What is Bursitis?

-Inflammation of a bursa;
-Overuse of a joint


What is Arthritis?

-Inflamed, swollen, painful joints =
1. Rheumatoid Arthritis
3. Gout