Physiology - Exam 3, Deck #1 - Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology - Exam 3, Deck #1 - Reproduction Deck (191)
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What are the Male Genital Organs?

1. Testes
2. Epididymis
3. Vas deferens
4. Urethra
5. Penis
6. Accessory glands
— Seminal vesicles
— Prostate gland
— Cowpers = bulbourethral glands


What are the Testes?

-2 small, oval shaped glands situated in a pouch called the SCROTUM and suspended by the spermatic chords;
-DO NOT develop in the scrotal sac


What is the Inguinal Canal?

-Narrow canal connecting the peritoneal cavity with the scrotal sac;
-Tests decend through canal at 7-9 months fetal life and enter the sac


What is Cryptochidism?

-Condition in which the testes fail to descend into the scrotum ;
-Male will NOT produce viable sperm


What causes Subsequent Inguinal Hernia Formation>

Incomplete closure of the inguinal canal at birth


How do the testes mature?

-Grow little during the first 10 years of life;
-Puberty - 11-12th years and acquire adult proportions


What is the main structure of the Testes?

-Outer fibrous coat = TUNICA ALBUGINEA;
-Inside glands = number of pyramid shaped LOBULES that face toward the surface


What makes up the weight of the Testes?

-90% = Seminiferous Tubules;
-10% = Interstitial cells of Leydig + other tissues
= Each lobule is made of of several seminiferous tubules with the interstitial cells of Leydig in between


What are Seminiferous Tubules?

-More than 800 seminiferous tubules/testes;
-Tubules unite and form a plexus of canals called the RETE TESTIS


What is the Rete Testis?

A plexus of canals formed from the seminiferous tubules;
-Ends in the upper part of the testes in a series of called the VAS EFFERENS


What is the Vas Efferens?

The vas efferent penetrate the tunica albuginea (outer coat) and form a convoluted tubular mass lying ON TOP of the testis called the EPIDIDYMIS


What is the the Epididymis>

-Convoluted tubular mass lying on top of the testes that came form the vas efferent;


What is the flow from the Epididymis?

-Epididymis — Single Duct (vas deferens) — Urethara


What is the function of the Interstitial Cells of Leydig?

Site of the male sex hormone production = Testosterone


What is Spermatogenesis?

The process of sperm formation;
-A type of meiosis that beings with the onset of puberty ;
-Takes place in the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules


What are Sertoli Cells?

Nurse cell located in the germinal epithelium;
-Sertoli cells are the target of FSH and function to causes changes in the spermatid to spermatozoa;
-Provide nutrients, hormones, and enzymes that are needed for transforming the spermatids


Where is sperm carried on the chromosomes?

-Half is carried on X chromosomes;
-Half is carried on Y chromosomes


What is Spermiation or Spermiogenesis?

-When spermatids are first formed they possess the characteristics of epitheliod cells, but by attaching to SERTOLI CELLS, the excess cytoplasm is removed and spermatids become spermatozoa;
-Each spermatid elongates into a spermatozoan


What makes up a Spermatazoan?

1. Acrosome head;
2. Midpiece;
3. Tail


Where did the Acrosome head come from?

-The acrosome head is formed from the golgi apparatus;
-Contains enzymes HYALURONIDASE and PROTEASES that play roles in entry of the sperm into the ovum


What are the stages of Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis?

START: Spermatogonia — Primary Spermatocytes;
1. Meiosis (first division) — Secondary Spermatocytes;
2. Meiosis (second division) — Spermatids = Testosterone required at Puberty;
3. Spermiogenesis = FSH required at puberty; Testosterone maintains after puberty
END: Spermatozoa


Where do sperm go once they are produced?

Sperm move from the seminiferous tubules, where they are NONMOTILE and can NOT fertilize an ovum;


What is Maturation of Sperm?

-After 18 hours to 10 days, they develop the capability of motility even though some inhibiting factors still prevent motility until ejaculation;
-Also develop the ability to fertilize an ovum


How do sperm enter the Ejaculatory Duct?

1. Vas Efferens;
2. Inguinal Canal;
3. Over Pubic Arch;
4. Posteriorly to the point where the vas deferens join the seminal vesicles and forms the EJACULATORY DUCT


How does the Vas Deferens meet the Ejaculatory Duct?

Vas deferens receives the duct of the seminal vesicles and enters the tissues of the PROSTATE GLAND as the Ejaculatory Duct


Where the the Ejaculatory Ducts go?

The right and left ejaculatory ducts open in the URETHRA within the prostate gland


Where is Spermatozoan stored?

A small quantity of sperm is stored in the EPIDIDYMIS, but most are stored in the VAS DEFERENS and in the AMPULLA of the vas deferens;
-They can remain stored in a fertile state for up to several months;
-With frequent sexual activity storage may be no longer than a few days


What are the Seminal Vesicles?

-Lobulated sacs located at the posterior surface of the bladder;


What fluid is secreted from the Seminal Vesicles?

-Secrete a fluid that forms a part of the semen;
-Fluid of the ejaculatory duct and forms 60% (range 45-80%) the bulk of semen;
-Last fluid to be ejaculated and washes sperm out of the ejaculatory duct and urethra


What are components of the Seminal Vesicle FLUID?

1. Fructose = energy source for spermatozoa;
2. Phosphorylchoine = function unknown; legal test for presence of semen;
3. Specific genes in the DNA of the spermatozoa;
4. Prostaglandins = aid fertilization