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General IGCSE Biology > Food and Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Food and Digestion Deck (16)
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1

What do we need food for?

Supply us with energy. Provide minerals for growth and repair. Help fight diseases and keep us healthy.

2

The 7 groups

Carbs, Protein, Fibre, Fats, minerals, water, vitamins

3

Carbohydrates

Quick release energy, the main source of energy

4

Lipids (Fats)

Long term energy storage, insulate the body, protect organs from damage.

5

Proteins

Growth and repair of tissues

6

Minerals

Ca teeth/bones, Mg making bones, P making teeth/bones, Na body fluids, Cl body fluids, Fe haemoglobin. Mineral deficiencies causes problems

7

Vitamins

A blindness cornea, B1,2,3 cell respiration, C sticks lining surfaces mouth, D absorb calcium and phosphorus.

8

Tests Fro starch/Glucose

Starch, Iodine Glucose, Benedict's solution

9

Energy of food tests

Place food under bunsen until lit then place underneath test tube of water. Keep doing this until it won't light. The measure the difference in water temperature. Equation : Temp change x amount 4.2

10

Name 11 things in the digestive system

Mouth, Tongue, salivary gland, Oesophagus, Stomach, Liver, Gall bladder, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas,anus

11

Mouth

Mechanical and chemical, from teeth and enzymes (saliva from glands), then swallowed into the oesophagus.

12

Stomach

In here the food is broken down by hydrochloric acid at a very low ph 1-2 killing bacteria

13

Liver/bile

Creates bile to neutralise the acidic food, stored in the gall bladder. It emulsifies lipides smaller increasing the surface area so that lipase can break it down

14

How does the food move? (duodenum)

The muscles upon the lining of the gut. Two layer circular and longitudinal and these push the food along through peristalsis, like waves not dependant on gravity.

15

Small intestine (Ileum)

It absorbs digested food. Lining large surface area and lined with villi. Villi have microvilli increasing the surface area. Food enters capillaries, not fat enters lacteal, forms lymphatic system turned to lymph then transported to blood. The blood collect then sent to liver through hepatic portal vein.

16

Large intestine.

Eliminates waste. The colon absorbs the rest of the water leaving faeces, stored in the rectum the expelled out of the anus