Flashcards in Food Fermentation 2 Deck (17):
what are the two key biological molecules in fermentation?
Cellulose NO B1-4 in humans.
Starch analysis method 1?
1. Enzyme methods use alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase
Starch anaylsis method 2?
2. Acid hydrolysis
Yeast fermentation aka brewing.. potable alcochol has three stages..what are they?
1. Conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars
a) Sugar crops (sugar cane- extraction of juice)
b) Starches (wheat, barley- enzyme hydrolysis)
c) Lignocellulose ( acid hydrolysis-milling)
Predominately Saccharomyces spp. (yeast)
use glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose,
Alcohol recovery/ product fermentation
Fermentation with oxygen and without oxygen
WITH oxygen: grows well, glucose--> CO2 and H2O
without O2--> Glucose~ 51% ethanol + CO2.
Side products are toxic. 5% glycerol, butyl alcohols and esters.
Flavors such as acetic and lactic acids.
Ethanol can be. leaky at 4%, which can cause ethanol to go into cells. soluble metabolites ar elost.
Distillation of ethanol
1. Primary distillation--> beer wich is >85% (removes volitiles ether and aldehydes)
2. Rectification 96% ehtanol 3.5% water
3. dehydration benzene or cyclohexane 99.9%
What are the types of potable ethanol?
Unforitifed what type of drinks
Whiskey, gin, vodka, rum.
What is the difference between ales and lager beer?
ales beer is bottled for 3 weeks at 18-20C, while lager is bottled for 7 weeks at 13-17C bottom yeast
What is a cider?
yeast + Lactobacillus planetarium, L. mali. HOMOlactics
- fermented apple juice
What are wines?
fermented grape juice.
Ferment for 10 days, solids prepicipate for about 6 weeks, add acids. clear "must" for 6months to two years.