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Flashcards in Food, nutrition and health Deck (58):
1

What are proteins needed for?

growth, repair and maintenance

2

What is a high biological value in proteins?

Proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids we need e.g. meat and fish

3

What are low biological value proteins?

Proteins that are missing a few essential amino acids e.g. peas and beans

4

What is protein complementation?

combining different LBV proteins

5

How much protein should the average male and female consume?

The average male - 55g
Average female - 45g

6

Who may need more protein?

1. growing children
2. Physically active people
3. Pregnant wome+n

7

What happens if there is too much protein in the body?`

puts pressure on organs that process proteins e.g. livers and kidneys

8

What happens if there is too little protein in the body?

1. Growth slows down
2. Immune system cant work properly so wounds dont heal as quicky
3. People struggle to digest food, so some nutrients arent taken in by the body
4. can lead to oedema - swelling and therefore kwashiorkor

9

Name a few alternative to proteins?

1. Soya
2. Mycoprotein
3. Textured vegetable protein
4. Tofu (curdling soya milk)

10

Why does our body need fat?

1. provides energy
2. source of fat soluble vitamins (a, d, e and k)
3. Forms insulating layer under skin to keep us warm and to protect bones and organs
4. used to make cholesterol, which is essential in all cell membranes

11

What are saturated fats?

Fats that contain a single C-C bond and that are bad for your health as they increase bad cholesterol levels

12

What are unsaturated fats?

Fats that contain at least a C=C double bond and are generally healthier than saturated fats

13

Give a few examples of monounsaturated fats? (one double C=C bond)

1- olive oil
2. almonds
3. Peanut butter
4. Avocados

14

Give a few examples of polyunsaturated fats? (more than one double C=C bond)

1. sesame oil
2. Soybean oil
3. Seeds
4. oily fish

15

How much fat should make up our daily food energy? (percentage)

35%

16

How much saturated fat should adults eat a day? (percentage and grams)

11% and 20g

17

How much FAT should an adult take in per day? (grams)

70 g

18

What happens if we have too much fat in our body?

1.Obesity (type 2 diabetes)
2. heart problems

19

What happens if we have too little fat in our body?

1. vitamin deficiency
2. weight loss
3. less insulation (colder)
4. Thinner layer of skin to protect body from knocks

20

What are carbohydrates needed for and what are two groups they can be split into>

They're needed for energy and they can be split into:
- sugar
- starch

21

What are monosaccharides?

basic sugar molecules e.g. glucose and fructose

22

What are disaccharides?

two or more monosaccharides e.g. sucrose

23

What are polysaccharides and give an example?

lots of monosaccharides joined together e.g starch is made up of lots of glucose molecules

24

What do complex carbohydrates like starch provide?

- a gradual increase of blood sugar levels and a slow, steady release of energy

25

What are High GI foods?

Foods that are digested quickly and cause a rapid rise in blood sugar levels e.g. white bread/pasta/rice

26

What are Low GI foods?

Foods that are digested slowly and cause a gradual increase in blood sugar levels e.g. wholewheat bread/pasta, brown rice

27

How much of our energy should come from carbs? (percentage)

50%

28

What happens if theres too much carbs in our body?

1. it is converted into fat - obesity
2. Tooth decay from sugars
3. Type 2 diabetes - high blood levels

29

What happens if theres too little carbs in our body?

1. blood sugar levels drop - fainting
2. weight loss

30

What is Vitamin A needed for?

-It is needed for good eyesight, growth, a healthy immune system and skin.
- anti oxidant

31

Where can you find vitamin A

Mainly retinol but also liver, butter, oily fish and eggs

32

What happens if you have too much/too little vitamin A?

Too much - weak bones
Too little - night blindness, weak immune system, stunted growth

33

What is Vitamin D needed for?

for the development of healthy bones and teeth

34

Where can you find Vitamin D?

Oily fish, egg yolks, sunlight and milk

35

What happens if you have too much Vitamin D?

Kidney damage

36

What happens if you have too little Vitamin D?

Osteomalacia or rickets

37

What is Vitamin E needed for?

-Keeping eyes and skin healthy
-improving immune system
- Anti-oxidant

38

Where can you find vitamin e?

Leaft greens (spinach and kale), broccoli

39

What happens if you have too much vitamin E?

1. interferes with blood clotting
2. Causes nausea and blurred vision

40

What happens if you have too little Vitamin E?

1. Weak muscles
2. Problems with sight

41

What is Vitamin K needed for?

To clot blood and heal wounds, also to maintain immune system and bones

42

Where can you find Vitamin K?

Leafy greens. cereals and vegetable oils

43

What happens if you have too little Vitamin K? (theres no excessive level of vitamin k?

Uncontrolled bleeding in new borns

44

Why must you prepare food just before you eat them?

Because they start losing Vitamin C, once exposed to air

45

What are anti-oxidants?

Vitamins that protect our body from chemicals that can damage our bodys cells

46

What is iron needed for ?

To form part of the haemoglobin whch gives blood cells their red colour

47

What is calcium needed for?

Strong bones and teeth

48

What is sodium needed for?

- it helps our nerves and muscles to function (sodium chloride)

49

What is phosphorus needed for and where is it found?

Phosphorus is needed for healthy bones and teeth and it can be found in meat

50

Give two examples of trace elements? (minerals)

1. Fluoride
2. Iodine

51

What is the function of fibre?

Helps keep our digestive system working

52

What is water needed for?

- To eliminate waste from the body
- To control body temperature
- To aid the process of digestion

53

What must we include in a healthy diet?

1. Fruit and veg
2. Protein
3. Carbs
4. Dairy products
5. Oils and spreads (unsaturated fats)

54

What nutrients are essential for children/teenagers take?

1. Calcium (Vitamin D)
2. Protein
3. Fat (energy)

55

What nutrients should adults take?

1. Calcium (Vitamin D) to prevent bone diseases
2. Iron (women)

56

What is BMR and what factors affect it?

BMR is the smallest amount of energy needed for you to stay alive. It is affected by:
- Age
-Gender
- Weight
- Exercise

57

What is our PAL?

Our Physical activity level

58

BMR * PAL =

Daily energy requirement