Flashcards in Food, nutrition and health Deck (58):
What are proteins needed for?
growth, repair and maintenance
What is a high biological value in proteins?
Proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids we need e.g. meat and fish
What are low biological value proteins?
Proteins that are missing a few essential amino acids e.g. peas and beans
What is protein complementation?
combining different LBV proteins
How much protein should the average male and female consume?
The average male - 55g
Average female - 45g
Who may need more protein?
1. growing children
2. Physically active people
3. Pregnant wome+n
What happens if there is too much protein in the body?`
puts pressure on organs that process proteins e.g. livers and kidneys
What happens if there is too little protein in the body?
1. Growth slows down
2. Immune system cant work properly so wounds dont heal as quicky
3. People struggle to digest food, so some nutrients arent taken in by the body
4. can lead to oedema - swelling and therefore kwashiorkor
Name a few alternative to proteins?
3. Textured vegetable protein
4. Tofu (curdling soya milk)
Why does our body need fat?
1. provides energy
2. source of fat soluble vitamins (a, d, e and k)
3. Forms insulating layer under skin to keep us warm and to protect bones and organs
4. used to make cholesterol, which is essential in all cell membranes
What are saturated fats?
Fats that contain a single C-C bond and that are bad for your health as they increase bad cholesterol levels
What are unsaturated fats?
Fats that contain at least a C=C double bond and are generally healthier than saturated fats
Give a few examples of monounsaturated fats? (one double C=C bond)
1- olive oil
3. Peanut butter
Give a few examples of polyunsaturated fats? (more than one double C=C bond)
1. sesame oil
2. Soybean oil
4. oily fish
How much fat should make up our daily food energy? (percentage)
How much saturated fat should adults eat a day? (percentage and grams)
11% and 20g
How much FAT should an adult take in per day? (grams)
What happens if we have too much fat in our body?
1.Obesity (type 2 diabetes)
2. heart problems
What happens if we have too little fat in our body?
1. vitamin deficiency
2. weight loss
3. less insulation (colder)
4. Thinner layer of skin to protect body from knocks
What are carbohydrates needed for and what are two groups they can be split into>
They're needed for energy and they can be split into:
What are monosaccharides?
basic sugar molecules e.g. glucose and fructose
What are disaccharides?
two or more monosaccharides e.g. sucrose
What are polysaccharides and give an example?
lots of monosaccharides joined together e.g starch is made up of lots of glucose molecules
What do complex carbohydrates like starch provide?
- a gradual increase of blood sugar levels and a slow, steady release of energy
What are High GI foods?
Foods that are digested quickly and cause a rapid rise in blood sugar levels e.g. white bread/pasta/rice
What are Low GI foods?
Foods that are digested slowly and cause a gradual increase in blood sugar levels e.g. wholewheat bread/pasta, brown rice
How much of our energy should come from carbs? (percentage)
What happens if theres too much carbs in our body?
1. it is converted into fat - obesity
2. Tooth decay from sugars
3. Type 2 diabetes - high blood levels
What happens if theres too little carbs in our body?
1. blood sugar levels drop - fainting
2. weight loss
What is Vitamin A needed for?
-It is needed for good eyesight, growth, a healthy immune system and skin.
- anti oxidant
Where can you find vitamin A
Mainly retinol but also liver, butter, oily fish and eggs
What happens if you have too much/too little vitamin A?
Too much - weak bones
Too little - night blindness, weak immune system, stunted growth
What is Vitamin D needed for?
for the development of healthy bones and teeth
Where can you find Vitamin D?
Oily fish, egg yolks, sunlight and milk
What happens if you have too much Vitamin D?
What happens if you have too little Vitamin D?
Osteomalacia or rickets
What is Vitamin E needed for?
-Keeping eyes and skin healthy
-improving immune system
Where can you find vitamin e?
Leaft greens (spinach and kale), broccoli
What happens if you have too much vitamin E?
1. interferes with blood clotting
2. Causes nausea and blurred vision
What happens if you have too little Vitamin E?
1. Weak muscles
2. Problems with sight
What is Vitamin K needed for?
To clot blood and heal wounds, also to maintain immune system and bones
Where can you find Vitamin K?
Leafy greens. cereals and vegetable oils
What happens if you have too little Vitamin K? (theres no excessive level of vitamin k?
Uncontrolled bleeding in new borns
Why must you prepare food just before you eat them?
Because they start losing Vitamin C, once exposed to air
What are anti-oxidants?
Vitamins that protect our body from chemicals that can damage our bodys cells
What is iron needed for ?
To form part of the haemoglobin whch gives blood cells their red colour
What is calcium needed for?
Strong bones and teeth
What is sodium needed for?
- it helps our nerves and muscles to function (sodium chloride)
What is phosphorus needed for and where is it found?
Phosphorus is needed for healthy bones and teeth and it can be found in meat
Give two examples of trace elements? (minerals)
What is the function of fibre?
Helps keep our digestive system working
What is water needed for?
- To eliminate waste from the body
- To control body temperature
- To aid the process of digestion
What must we include in a healthy diet?
1. Fruit and veg
4. Dairy products
5. Oils and spreads (unsaturated fats)
What nutrients are essential for children/teenagers take?
1. Calcium (Vitamin D)
3. Fat (energy)
What nutrients should adults take?
1. Calcium (Vitamin D) to prevent bone diseases
2. Iron (women)
What is BMR and what factors affect it?
BMR is the smallest amount of energy needed for you to stay alive. It is affected by:
What is our PAL?
Our Physical activity level