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Flashcards in food production Deck (84):
1

good food depends upon:

quality, storage, recipes, amount, prep procedures, holding, service

2

why cook?

enhance aesthetics, destroy pathogens, improve digestibility and maximize nutr retention

3

a recipe or formula that can be easily duplicated by a number of ppl and still get same result

standardized recipe

4

why standardized recipes?

cost, consistency, customer satisfaction/expectations, planning and purchasing, avoid over/under producing

5

limits of standardized recipes

ingredient substitutions, financial limits, equipment/facilities, employee training, learning rules, brreaking rules

6

descriptive terms before ingredients vs after ingredients?

form as purchased/how handled before use; processing after measured

7

What is diff between AP and EP?

as purchased; edible portion (account for trim losses)

8

whhat are 3 phases of recipe standardization?

recipe verification, product evaluation, quantity adjustment

9

what is recipe verification

review components, make, verify yield, record changes

10

what is product evaluation?

determine acceptability (informal or formal)

11

informal evaluation:

when first prepared, visual appearance/flavour/ability obtain ingredients/cost/labour/equipment/employee skill

12

formal evaluation:

if staff think recipe has potential-->taste panel, evaluation instrument, prepare sample recipe, summarize results, plan for future

13

diff recipe formats:

block, complete block, modified block

14

what is block format?

ingredients list on left side, procedures direct opp ingredients on right

15

what is complete block format?

horizontal lines separate each group of ingredients with procedures; vertical lines separate ingredient, amount, procedure columns

16

the exact amount of food that a guest is given

portion size

17

different methods for quantity adjustment

factor, percentage, direct reading measurement tables

18

what is factor method?

quantities of ingredients in the original recipe are multiplied by conversion factor (noncomputerized)

19

what is percentage method?

percentage of total wt of product calculated for each ingredient

20

for factor method, round to ____ decimal places unless amount is < 1 lb then ____ places

1; 2

21

direct reading used for recipes divisible by ___

25

22

conversion factor =

desired yield / original yield

23

steps for conversion

1. calculate original yield 2. calculate desired yield 3. Desired / Original 4. multiply all ingredients by conversion factor

24

definitions for production scheduling?

time sequencing of events required by production subsystems to produce a meal OR decision making/communication process whereby production staff is informed of how food prep is to take place over specified period of time

25

two stages of production scheduling:

planning, action

26

production scheduling is essential for ____ and affects ___

production control, efficient use of resources; cost of material, labour, energy

27

how ensure efficiency?

what menu items to prepare, what quantities, when items produced, who prepares

28

what is planning stage?

forecasts converted into quantity to produce and distribution of food products to supervisors in each work unit, director/chef assigns production to supervisor, greens to salad unit, appetizers and dessert to waitstaff

29

what is action stage?

prepare production schedule (supervisors), assure high food quality

30

best time to schedule production meetings?

around lunch time

31

what is batch cooking?

prepare and cook as much food as is needed, ideal maintain food temp/quality, divide food into smaller batches and cook one at time

32

advantages of centralized ingredient assembly

contributes to cost reduction and quality improvement, streamline cooks skills to what they need to do, more efficient use of labour

33

what is production forecasting?

estimate events in future and provide database for decision making and planning-->estimate future demand using past data

34

production forecasting applied to foodservice?

prediction of food needs for a day/specified time period, means of communication (ensure timeliness, standards of quality)

35

in large organizations , forecasting replaces ___ system

tally

36

types of forecasting models

time series, causal, subjective

37

what is causal model?

consider factors like selling price, # customers, market availability (computerized)

38

when use subjective?

relevant data scarce, patterns and relationships don't seem persist (qualitative, rely on opinions)

39

types of time series?

moving average, exponential smoothing

40

what assumption of time series model?

assumption that actual occurrences follow an identifiable pattern over time

41

most common and easiest time series

moving average

42

what is moving average?

1) take average of # portions sold for last five or more times menu item offered 2) drop first number and add most recent number of portions sold to bottom of list and then calc another average

43

what is exponential smoothing forecasting model?

popular time series model that can be set up on computer spreadsheet-->exponentially decreasing set of weights is used, giving recent values more weight than older ones

44

why stainless steel mostly used?

permanence, resistance to stains, lack of reaction with food, appearance, ease of cleaning, price

45

what are direct operating costs?

include expenses associated with utilities

46

most common materials for constructing equipment?

stainless steel, aluminum (carts/racks), galvanized iron (internal structure), plastics (decorative/functional), wood

47

types of heat transfer

conduction, convection, radiation, induction

48

what is conduction?

transfer of heat thru direct contact of one object with another (metals are good for this)

49

what is convection?

distr. of heat by mvmt of liquid or vapour (natural or forced)

50

natural convection?

density/temp diffs within liquid or vapour

51

what is radiation?

generation of heat energy by wave action in object (infrared and microwave)

52

example of infrared?

broil (long waves)

53

microwaves have ___ length and gen. by _____

short; electromagnetic tube

54

what is induction?

use electrical magnetic fields to excite cules of metal cooking surfaces (induction heat burners)

55

benefits of using induction?

fast, even, clean; don't require ventilation

56

two cooking methods?

dry and moist heat

57

dry heat?

heat conducted by dry air, hot metal, radiation, or min. amt hot fat

58

moist heat?

involve use of water or steam for cooking process

59

diff between stew and braise?

stew cuts into bite sizes

60

roast vs bake?

roast is for meats

61

need to elevate shelves at least ____ inches off floor

6

62

buffalo chopper?

food chopped by semicircle blade rotate fast

63

slicer?

motor driven with round carbon steel/stainless steel blade that is hollow or bevel-ground. Blade and carrier are tilted at 30 degree angle from vertical, gravity pulls food product down carrier into path of blade

64

most widely used oven where fan circs heated air thru cooking cavity

convection oven

65

this oven brings together oven and steamer--use convected heated air and steam

combi steamer oven

66

advantages of combi?

consistent flavour/colour/texture, multiple items cooked at same time without flavour transfer, reduced shrinkage, efficient use of kitchen space

67

factors that affect cooking time in microwaves?

temp of food placed in oven, amt moisture, density/thickness, amt food placed at one time, wattage

68

steam jacket kettles?

heated from inner jacket that contains steam, usually for bringing liquid product to boiling temp

69

what is a bain-marie?

hot water bath in the cook's table (heat by coil), hold sauces/soups/stocks at near boiling

70

induction cooking great for:

cooking fresh in front of customer

71

carousel dish machine?

two tank conveyor w/ continuous circular rack transport, racking system/offloading, electric/gas/steam

72

what are power pot sinks?

continuous, soil-removing water turbulence in which 115 degrees F water circulated at high rate to loosen and remove soil from pots and pans

73

preproduction controls?

menus, forecasts, production schedule, recipes, requisitions from inventory, central ingredient control

74

production controls?

time and temp, product yield, portion control, product evaluation

75

directors who have __ system more likely incorporate ingredient room

cook-chill

76

measures of meat doneness?

colour, moisture reading, vapour-content analyzers

77

in meat cooking must consider _____ cooking

carry-over

78

what is carry over?

internal temp will continue ^ even after remove from oven (outside hotter than inside)

79

how portion control?

purchasing, standardized recipes, correct cooking/serving utensils

80

number on scoops indicates:

number of servings per quart

81

combines the ease of serving with spoon and portion control of ladle into one!

spoodle

82

3 equipment used for portion control?

scales, slicers, steamtable pan

83

EP = ____

AP x % yield

84

product evaluation involves:

taste, flavour, appearance, texture, temp