Flashcards in food production Deck (84):
good food depends upon:
quality, storage, recipes, amount, prep procedures, holding, service
enhance aesthetics, destroy pathogens, improve digestibility and maximize nutr retention
a recipe or formula that can be easily duplicated by a number of ppl and still get same result
why standardized recipes?
cost, consistency, customer satisfaction/expectations, planning and purchasing, avoid over/under producing
limits of standardized recipes
ingredient substitutions, financial limits, equipment/facilities, employee training, learning rules, brreaking rules
descriptive terms before ingredients vs after ingredients?
form as purchased/how handled before use; processing after measured
What is diff between AP and EP?
as purchased; edible portion (account for trim losses)
whhat are 3 phases of recipe standardization?
recipe verification, product evaluation, quantity adjustment
what is recipe verification
review components, make, verify yield, record changes
what is product evaluation?
determine acceptability (informal or formal)
when first prepared, visual appearance/flavour/ability obtain ingredients/cost/labour/equipment/employee skill
if staff think recipe has potential-->taste panel, evaluation instrument, prepare sample recipe, summarize results, plan for future
diff recipe formats:
block, complete block, modified block
what is block format?
ingredients list on left side, procedures direct opp ingredients on right
what is complete block format?
horizontal lines separate each group of ingredients with procedures; vertical lines separate ingredient, amount, procedure columns
the exact amount of food that a guest is given
different methods for quantity adjustment
factor, percentage, direct reading measurement tables
what is factor method?
quantities of ingredients in the original recipe are multiplied by conversion factor (noncomputerized)
what is percentage method?
percentage of total wt of product calculated for each ingredient
for factor method, round to ____ decimal places unless amount is < 1 lb then ____ places
direct reading used for recipes divisible by ___
conversion factor =
desired yield / original yield
steps for conversion
1. calculate original yield 2. calculate desired yield 3. Desired / Original 4. multiply all ingredients by conversion factor
definitions for production scheduling?
time sequencing of events required by production subsystems to produce a meal OR decision making/communication process whereby production staff is informed of how food prep is to take place over specified period of time
two stages of production scheduling:
production scheduling is essential for ____ and affects ___
production control, efficient use of resources; cost of material, labour, energy
how ensure efficiency?
what menu items to prepare, what quantities, when items produced, who prepares
what is planning stage?
forecasts converted into quantity to produce and distribution of food products to supervisors in each work unit, director/chef assigns production to supervisor, greens to salad unit, appetizers and dessert to waitstaff
what is action stage?
prepare production schedule (supervisors), assure high food quality
best time to schedule production meetings?
around lunch time
what is batch cooking?
prepare and cook as much food as is needed, ideal maintain food temp/quality, divide food into smaller batches and cook one at time
advantages of centralized ingredient assembly
contributes to cost reduction and quality improvement, streamline cooks skills to what they need to do, more efficient use of labour
what is production forecasting?
estimate events in future and provide database for decision making and planning-->estimate future demand using past data
production forecasting applied to foodservice?
prediction of food needs for a day/specified time period, means of communication (ensure timeliness, standards of quality)
in large organizations , forecasting replaces ___ system
types of forecasting models
time series, causal, subjective
what is causal model?
consider factors like selling price, # customers, market availability (computerized)
when use subjective?
relevant data scarce, patterns and relationships don't seem persist (qualitative, rely on opinions)
types of time series?
moving average, exponential smoothing
what assumption of time series model?
assumption that actual occurrences follow an identifiable pattern over time
most common and easiest time series
what is moving average?
1) take average of # portions sold for last five or more times menu item offered 2) drop first number and add most recent number of portions sold to bottom of list and then calc another average
what is exponential smoothing forecasting model?
popular time series model that can be set up on computer spreadsheet-->exponentially decreasing set of weights is used, giving recent values more weight than older ones
why stainless steel mostly used?
permanence, resistance to stains, lack of reaction with food, appearance, ease of cleaning, price
what are direct operating costs?
include expenses associated with utilities
most common materials for constructing equipment?
stainless steel, aluminum (carts/racks), galvanized iron (internal structure), plastics (decorative/functional), wood
types of heat transfer
conduction, convection, radiation, induction
what is conduction?
transfer of heat thru direct contact of one object with another (metals are good for this)
what is convection?
distr. of heat by mvmt of liquid or vapour (natural or forced)
density/temp diffs within liquid or vapour
what is radiation?
generation of heat energy by wave action in object (infrared and microwave)
example of infrared?
broil (long waves)
microwaves have ___ length and gen. by _____
short; electromagnetic tube
what is induction?
use electrical magnetic fields to excite cules of metal cooking surfaces (induction heat burners)
benefits of using induction?
fast, even, clean; don't require ventilation
two cooking methods?
dry and moist heat
heat conducted by dry air, hot metal, radiation, or min. amt hot fat
involve use of water or steam for cooking process
diff between stew and braise?
stew cuts into bite sizes
roast vs bake?
roast is for meats
need to elevate shelves at least ____ inches off floor
food chopped by semicircle blade rotate fast
motor driven with round carbon steel/stainless steel blade that is hollow or bevel-ground. Blade and carrier are tilted at 30 degree angle from vertical, gravity pulls food product down carrier into path of blade
most widely used oven where fan circs heated air thru cooking cavity
this oven brings together oven and steamer--use convected heated air and steam
combi steamer oven
advantages of combi?
consistent flavour/colour/texture, multiple items cooked at same time without flavour transfer, reduced shrinkage, efficient use of kitchen space
factors that affect cooking time in microwaves?
temp of food placed in oven, amt moisture, density/thickness, amt food placed at one time, wattage
steam jacket kettles?
heated from inner jacket that contains steam, usually for bringing liquid product to boiling temp
what is a bain-marie?
hot water bath in the cook's table (heat by coil), hold sauces/soups/stocks at near boiling
induction cooking great for:
cooking fresh in front of customer
carousel dish machine?
two tank conveyor w/ continuous circular rack transport, racking system/offloading, electric/gas/steam
what are power pot sinks?
continuous, soil-removing water turbulence in which 115 degrees F water circulated at high rate to loosen and remove soil from pots and pans
menus, forecasts, production schedule, recipes, requisitions from inventory, central ingredient control
time and temp, product yield, portion control, product evaluation
directors who have __ system more likely incorporate ingredient room
measures of meat doneness?
colour, moisture reading, vapour-content analyzers
in meat cooking must consider _____ cooking
what is carry over?
internal temp will continue ^ even after remove from oven (outside hotter than inside)
how portion control?
purchasing, standardized recipes, correct cooking/serving utensils
number on scoops indicates:
number of servings per quart
combines the ease of serving with spoon and portion control of ladle into one!
3 equipment used for portion control?
scales, slicers, steamtable pan
EP = ____
AP x % yield