The outcomes of miscodes in food: Pathogenesis Spoilage Preservation
Pathogenesis- Health and societal impact, publicized recalls, associated costs. Spoilage- Reduced shelf life, lost revenue, sanitation and safety issues Preservation- Fermentation increased shelf life, enhanced safety, improved quality and flavour
What does diffusable mean in terms of microbial samples?
Weather or no the colour of the colony will diffuse into the agar
Will a positive gram stain be purple or pink?
How is gram staining done?
What are the 4 distinct parts to a spore?
Core, cortex, spore coat, exosporium
Discuss some details about the endospore core
When are spores formed?
Occurs when the cells stop growing. Key nutrient becomes limited. Involves serveral stages. More than 200 genes are involved.
Differnce between yeasts and molds?
Yeasts- unicellular, grow over a wide range of conditions. Grow faster than molds (but slower than bacteria)
Multi/unicellular. Found in decaying organic matter. Form mycelium (tangled mass that spreads, composed of hyphae). Multiply by spores known a condida. Some produce toxins, antibiotics and enzymes that are useful i the food industry.
Which virus is known as the cruise ship virus?
Pathogenic microrganisms include:
Bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses.
What aspects are in a pathogen-host relationship?
Pathogen: Latency period (how long it will sit before you get sick), persistence/die off, infective dose, species strain
Host: Natural, aquired through infection (are antibodies still being produced by your body?), aquired through vaccination? New born through placenta/mother's milk. Age infected (elderly or under 5?), health statue, nutrition, hygiene.
What happens when you get a food-borne infection? What are the possible symptoms?
Occurs when viable pathogen is injested with food and multiply in the human body. Symptoms occur 1-50 days after infection
Found in silage, soils, animal hides, animal/human feces
Proliferates nearly everywhere!!!
Issues with is every year
What is food borne intoxication? Symptoms?
Occurs when food injested already contain toxins produced by molds or bacteria
RICE LEFT OUT OVERNIGHT!
Symptoms are fast, often minutes to 15 hours after injestion.
Headache, vomiting, cramps, weakness.....
What are mycotoxins?
– “mycos” meaning fungus; “toxicum” meaning poison
• Found on agricultural products before, after or during storage/transportation & an unavoidable contaminant of foods and feeds
• Toxic effects exerted on animals or humans – mycotoxicosis
• Major problem world wide
• Historically, a number of documented outbreaks
What are foodborne Intoxifications?
Organisms that produce toxin once growing inside the intestine ex) E. coli, salmonella
What is E. coli poisoning linked to?
Unpasterurized juices, raw milk, undercooked ground beed, raw vegatables (such as cucumber)
Raw flour !!!
What does HACCP stand for?
Hazard analysis critical control point system
What was the Pillbury method of looking at food safety for NASA?
The system they employed was designed to:
– Identify hazards to foods during their preparation
– Identify production steps where control could be exercised to ensure the safest product
– To monitor the control steps • It is a preventative system and was the birth of
What are the 7 principals of HACCP?
1. Assess hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, raw materials, processing, manufacturing, distribution, marketing and preparation/consumption of food product
• 2. Determine CCP(s) to control these hazards
• 3. Establish critical limits for these CCP(s)
• 4. Establish procedures to monitor the CCP(s)
• 5. Establish corrective actions to be taken deviations occur from a monitored CCP
6. Establish procedures for verifying that HACCP works
• 7. Establish effective record & documentation system of HACCP plan and data
What is the CFIA's policy that embodies HACCP?
The Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP)
To ensure all processed agri-food products made more safe. A four volume manual.
FSEP/HACCP now required in all federally registered meat and poultry establishments and storages – Emphasizes quality of all ingredients and processing steps assuming the product will be safe if these are controlled