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What is food science?

The discipline in biology, physical sciences and engineering used to study the nature of foods, the causes of their deterioration and the principles underlying food processing.


The estimated total value of food loss and waste in Canada in 2014 was $____?

The estimated total value of food loss and waste in Canada in 2014 was $ 31 billion


Which regulator enforces these acts? -Canada Agricultural Products Act -Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act -Meat Inspection Act -Plant Inspection Act

Canadian Food Inspection Agency


Standardized Foods- Butter or Dairy Spread? Must contain min of 80% milk fat, may contain milk solids, salt, permitted food color, permitted bacterial culture.

Butter, Must contain min of 80% milk fat, may contain milk solids, salt, permitted food color, permitted bacterial culture. Dairy spread, min 39% milk fat, max 80%, may contain as above plus emulsifying and stabilizing agents.


On nutrition panel what does DV stand for and what does it mean?

DV= percent daily value. Based on the 2000 calorie diet/day. The portion of each nutrient in your aprox. daily value by percent.


With a %DV= 15, is that a a little or a lot of the nutirent?

15% DV or more is a lot of a nutrient!


What were some changes that will be implemented on Canadian Food Labelling?

-Different sugar types will be separated in brackets -Food colours listed by name -Same portion size for similar products -Implimented in 2022 (5 year transition period)


Macronutrients: 1. 2. 3. 4. Micronutrients 1. 2.

Macronutrients: 1. Water 2. Lipids 3. Carbs 4. Proteins Micronutrients: 1. Vitamins 2. Minerals


Fat- soluable vitamins: (4 of them) Water soluable vitamins: (2 of them)

Fat- soluable vitamins: vit- K,A,D,E Water soluable vitamins: Vit C and B


What is the major distinguishing feature between fats and oils>

Fats are generally solid at room temp, while oils are generally liquid at room temp.


What are fats and oils composed of?

Fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol --> Known as triacylglycerol (3 FA esterified w/ 3 OH groups of glycerol)


What classifies as a short, medium and long chain FA?

short chain FA: 4-10 carbons) Medium: 12-14 carbons Long: (>14 carbons)


What does saturated have to do with double bonds?

NO double bonds


Where will omega bonds be if they are present? (ex. omega 3 bond)

Omega 3 bond... Will be located on the double bond the third carbon away from the terminal methyl group


Who is kinky? Saturated or unsaturated?

Those KINKY unsaturated bois!!!!


All naturally occurring vegetable oils and fats contain only (cis or trans?) fatty acids

All naturally occurring vegetable oils and fats contain only cis-fatty acids. -Animal fat contains trans-fatty acids (TFA's) -Hydrogenation of veg oils creates TFA's


Milk fats: Principal FA's Examples Importance

Milk Fats: Principal FA's- Mryrstic (C14), Palmitic (C16), steric (c18) and oleic (c18:1) Examples- fats from milk of cows, goats and buffalos Importance- Wide melting points due to FA composition.


Lauric Oils: Principal FA's Examples Importance

Lauric oils: Principal FA's- C12 Examples- coconut, palm kernel Importance- Particularilty for soap making. Low in unsaturation.


Palmitic oils: Principal FA's Examples Importance

Palmitic oils: Principal FA's- 44% C16:0 (plamitic acid), also large amount of oleic and some linoleic acids. Examples- Palm Importance- World's largest producers are malasia and indonesia. Highest global production of an oil.


Veg butter: Principal FA's Examples Importance

Vegetable butter: Principal FA's- solid fats from veg sources. Rich in saturated Fa's. PALMITIC AND STERIC. ALSO RICH IN OLEIC. Examples- cocoa butter, mango, kernel Importance- cocoa butter, main fat for chocolate.


Animal fats: Principal FA's Examples- Importance-

Animal Fats: Principal FA's- High content of palmitic, oleic and steric. Also contains trans-FA's. High content of fully saturated TAG (high melt pt) Examples- Lard, tallow Importance- Edible as well as industrial soap use.


Oleic/ linoleic oils: Principal FA's Examples- Importance-

Oleic/ linoleic oils: Principal FA's- Oleic and linoleic acids 80-90% Examples- soybean, sunflower, canola, corn, rice bran oil Importance- Most common type of veg oils


High oleic oils: Principal FA's Examples- Importance-

High oleic oils: Principal FA's- oleic acid nearly 80% Examples-soybean, canola, olive, sunflower Importance- (either traditional or genetic breeding)


Linolenic oils: Principal FA's Examples- Importance-

Linolenic oils: Principal FA's- Oleic and linoneic acids Examples- Flaxseed/lindseed, camelina, borage. Importance- Very good source of Omega 3 FA. Excellent drying properties (painting), high unsaturation leads to auto oxidation and rancidity.


Erucic acid oil Principal FA's Examples- Importance-

Erucic acid oils: Principal FA's- Erucic acid (C22:1) Examples-Rapeseed, mustard oil. Importance- Mainly used in industrial oil in norther america. Edible oil in China and India.


Marine and fish oils: Principal FA's Examples- Importance-

Marine and fish oils: Principal FA's- monounsaturated FAs, omega 3 polyunsaturated FA's (EPA, DHA, DPA). Examples- Seal blubber oil, menhaden oil Importance- Very low melt pt, allows for their life underwater. Susceptible to auto-oxidation (needs cold to avoid oxidation).


What are the steps in the industrial production of veg oil?

-Seed collection and cleaning -Extraction of crude oil (pressing, solvent extraction) -Refining of crude oil --> Removal of phospholipids (degumming) --> Removal of FFA's (alkali neutralization) --> Removal of undesirable colorants (bleaching) --> Removal of undesirable odours (deodorizing)


Describe what these are: Acid value Iodine value Smoke point

Acid value- free FA content. (Acid can react with the oils and other ingredients and cause rancidity) Iodine value- Degree of unsaturation. (based on ability of iodine to break double bonds and attach). Smoke point- Oil stability during frying. Temp at which first smoke is visable.



Expressed as number of iodine (g) absorbed by 100 g of oil. Iodine values of oils: Canola oil (110-126), Coconut (6-10), Palm oil (50-55)/ 100 g of oil.


What decreases the smoke pnt?

Refining decrease small particles and therefore smoke pnt. The presence of free FA's, unsaturated fats and low molecular weight compounds decrease smoke point of oils and fats.