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Flashcards in Foot & Ankle - Lecture Deck (59):
1

How many bones in the ankle?

28

2

How many sesamoid bones in the foot?

2

3

How many synovial joints in the foot and ankle?

30

4

What bone are part of the rearfoot?

Talus and Calcaneus

5

Midfoot = ?

Navicular
Cuboid
3 Cuneiforms

6

Forefoot = ?

14 bones of the toes
5 metatarsals
Medial and Lateral Sesamoids

7

T or F

The Distal Tibiofibular Joint is classified as a synchondrosis

False
Syndesmosis

8

Where is the common area of Diastasis in the foot and ankle?

Tibiofibular Joint

9

What type of joint is the Talocrural joint?

Synovial hinge or a modified sellar

10

What is the closed packed position for the Talocrural joint?

Weight-bearing dorsiflexion

11

What is the open packed position for the Talocrural joint?

Midway between supination and pronation

12

What type of joint is the Subtler Joint?

Synovial, bicondylar compunt joint consisting of two separate modified ovoid surfaces with their own joint cavities.

13

Subtalar Joint aka ?

Talocalcaneal Joint

14

What are the approximate degrees of inversion and eversion of the ankle?

20 degrees inversion
10 degrees eversion

15

Describe the movement changes with chronic arthritic conditions compared to traumatic arthritis

Chronic = limitation of inversion
Traumatic = limitation of eversion

16

T or F
The close-packed position for the subtalar joint is full eversion

False

Full inversion

17

What is the open packed position of the subtalar joint?

inversion/plantarflexion

18

Name the ligaments that provide deep support for the Talocalcaneal Joint

Interosseous cervical and axial ligaments often referred together as the interosseous ligaments

19

T or F

The calcaneocuboid joint is a compound modified ovoid joint

False

Simple synovial modified seller joint

20

Spring ligament is also called?

Plantar Calcaneonavicular

21

The spring ligament connects what structures?

Navicular to the sustentaculum tali on the calcaneus

22

What is the difference between the 1st inter metatarsal joint compared to the 2nd, 3rd, & 4th

1st = simple synovial modified ovoid joint
others = compound joints

23

T or F

The IP joints are classified as simple, synovial or modified ovoid joints

False

This is describing the MTP joints
IP = simple synovial modified sellar

24

What is a claw toe?

Hyperextension of the MTP joint & flexion of the PIP + DIP

25

Hyperextension of the MTP & DIP joint and flexion of the PIP joint is called?

Hammer Toe

26

What is Mallet Toe?

Hyper flexion of the DIP joint with callus formation on the dorm of the affected toe

27

Describe Hallux Valgus

A lateral deviation of the proximal phalanx of the 1st toe with pain on the medial side of the 1st MTP

28

What is Hallux Valgus called when it is on the 5th toe?

Tailors Bunion or a bunionette

29

Origin and insertion of the plantar fascia?

O = Os Calcis
I = complex network to the plantar forefoot.

30

Pes Cavus = ?

Abnormally high arch

31

Absent of medial longitudinal arch = ?

Pes planus

32

Name the anterior compartment of muscles

Tibialis anterior
extensor digitorum longus
Extensor Hallicus longus
Peroneus Teritus

33

What muscle is the strongest dorsiflexor and investor of the foot?

Tibialis anterior

34

What is stoppage gait?

Loss of tibialis muscle strength that leads to drop foot.

35

Posterior Superficial muscles of the foot.

Gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscle.

36

What compartment contains the flexors of the foot?

Posterior Deep Compartment
- posterior tibialis
- flexor digitorum longus
- flexor hallucis longus

37

What compartment does the Peroneus Longus and Brevis in?

Lateral Compartment

38

1st Layer of intrinsic muscles of the foot?

Abductor hallucis
Abductor digiti minimis
Flexor digitorum brevis

39

T or F
Quadratus plantar and lumbricales are located in the 3rd layer of intrinsic muscles

False

2nd

40

What muscles are in the 3rd layer of the intrinsic muscles

Flexor hallucis brevis
Flexor digiti minimis
Adductor hallucis

41

The dorsal intrinsic muscles of the foot are?

Extensor hallucis brevis and extensor digitorum brevis

42

The medial longitudinal arch is made up of what bones?

1st three digits and their Metatarsals
Cuneiforms
Navicular
Talus

43

T or F

The transverse arch of the foot is made up of the digits 4 & 5 and their metatarsals and the cuboid and calcaneus

False

That is describing the lateral longitudinal arch
Transverse = 5 metatarsal bones

44

Pain between the metatarsal heads typically 3rd & 4th is called?

Morton's Neuroma

45

The tibial nerve divides into?

Sural, medial calcaneal, medial plantar, and lateral plantar

46

What is Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome?

Repetitive hyperflexion or hyperextension motion resulting in tenosynovitis with resulting constriction of the posterior tibial nerve

47

What motion of the foot and ankle takes place in the frontal plane?

Inversion and Eversion

48

Sagittal plane of motion of the foot includes?

Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion

49

Adduction and Abduction occur in what plane of motion?

Horizontal

50

Triplanar motion occurs in what joints of the foot?

Talocrural, subtalar, midtarsal joints and at the first and firth rays.

51

T or F

Pronation and Supination are considered triplanar motions

True

52

Supination is combined motion of?

Adduction, plantarflexion and inversion

53

Normal alignment of the 1st MTP joint varies between what degrees of varus and values

5 degrees varus and 15 degrees valgus

54

T or F

Females suffer less from gout than males

True
Male 20:1 predominance

55

MC spot of Gout?

1st MTP joint

56

Increasing weakness with repeated contractions of the same resistance indicates?

Palsy

57

Consistent weakness with repeated contractions suggests?

De-conditioned muscles or a significant muscle tear

58

What nerve roots are associated with the ankle and foot

L4-S2

59

Posterior tibial nerve is sometimes tested at what disc level?

L5