Flashcards in Foot & Ankle - Lecture Deck (59):
How many bones in the ankle?
How many sesamoid bones in the foot?
How many synovial joints in the foot and ankle?
What bone are part of the rearfoot?
Talus and Calcaneus
Midfoot = ?
Forefoot = ?
14 bones of the toes
Medial and Lateral Sesamoids
T or F
The Distal Tibiofibular Joint is classified as a synchondrosis
Where is the common area of Diastasis in the foot and ankle?
What type of joint is the Talocrural joint?
Synovial hinge or a modified sellar
What is the closed packed position for the Talocrural joint?
What is the open packed position for the Talocrural joint?
Midway between supination and pronation
What type of joint is the Subtler Joint?
Synovial, bicondylar compunt joint consisting of two separate modified ovoid surfaces with their own joint cavities.
Subtalar Joint aka ?
What are the approximate degrees of inversion and eversion of the ankle?
20 degrees inversion
10 degrees eversion
Describe the movement changes with chronic arthritic conditions compared to traumatic arthritis
Chronic = limitation of inversion
Traumatic = limitation of eversion
T or F
The close-packed position for the subtalar joint is full eversion
What is the open packed position of the subtalar joint?
Name the ligaments that provide deep support for the Talocalcaneal Joint
Interosseous cervical and axial ligaments often referred together as the interosseous ligaments
T or F
The calcaneocuboid joint is a compound modified ovoid joint
Simple synovial modified seller joint
Spring ligament is also called?
The spring ligament connects what structures?
Navicular to the sustentaculum tali on the calcaneus
What is the difference between the 1st inter metatarsal joint compared to the 2nd, 3rd, & 4th
1st = simple synovial modified ovoid joint
others = compound joints
T or F
The IP joints are classified as simple, synovial or modified ovoid joints
This is describing the MTP joints
IP = simple synovial modified sellar
What is a claw toe?
Hyperextension of the MTP joint & flexion of the PIP + DIP
Hyperextension of the MTP & DIP joint and flexion of the PIP joint is called?
What is Mallet Toe?
Hyper flexion of the DIP joint with callus formation on the dorm of the affected toe
Describe Hallux Valgus
A lateral deviation of the proximal phalanx of the 1st toe with pain on the medial side of the 1st MTP
What is Hallux Valgus called when it is on the 5th toe?
Tailors Bunion or a bunionette
Origin and insertion of the plantar fascia?
O = Os Calcis
I = complex network to the plantar forefoot.
Pes Cavus = ?
Abnormally high arch
Absent of medial longitudinal arch = ?
Name the anterior compartment of muscles
extensor digitorum longus
Extensor Hallicus longus
What muscle is the strongest dorsiflexor and investor of the foot?
What is stoppage gait?
Loss of tibialis muscle strength that leads to drop foot.
Posterior Superficial muscles of the foot.
Gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscle.
What compartment contains the flexors of the foot?
Posterior Deep Compartment
- posterior tibialis
- flexor digitorum longus
- flexor hallucis longus
What compartment does the Peroneus Longus and Brevis in?
1st Layer of intrinsic muscles of the foot?
Abductor digiti minimis
Flexor digitorum brevis
T or F
Quadratus plantar and lumbricales are located in the 3rd layer of intrinsic muscles
What muscles are in the 3rd layer of the intrinsic muscles
Flexor hallucis brevis
Flexor digiti minimis
The dorsal intrinsic muscles of the foot are?
Extensor hallucis brevis and extensor digitorum brevis
The medial longitudinal arch is made up of what bones?
1st three digits and their Metatarsals
T or F
The transverse arch of the foot is made up of the digits 4 & 5 and their metatarsals and the cuboid and calcaneus
That is describing the lateral longitudinal arch
Transverse = 5 metatarsal bones
Pain between the metatarsal heads typically 3rd & 4th is called?
The tibial nerve divides into?
Sural, medial calcaneal, medial plantar, and lateral plantar
What is Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome?
Repetitive hyperflexion or hyperextension motion resulting in tenosynovitis with resulting constriction of the posterior tibial nerve
What motion of the foot and ankle takes place in the frontal plane?
Inversion and Eversion
Sagittal plane of motion of the foot includes?
Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion
Adduction and Abduction occur in what plane of motion?
Triplanar motion occurs in what joints of the foot?
Talocrural, subtalar, midtarsal joints and at the first and firth rays.
T or F
Pronation and Supination are considered triplanar motions
Supination is combined motion of?
Adduction, plantarflexion and inversion
Normal alignment of the 1st MTP joint varies between what degrees of varus and values
5 degrees varus and 15 degrees valgus
T or F
Females suffer less from gout than males
Male 20:1 predominance
MC spot of Gout?
1st MTP joint
Increasing weakness with repeated contractions of the same resistance indicates?
Consistent weakness with repeated contractions suggests?
De-conditioned muscles or a significant muscle tear
What nerve roots are associated with the ankle and foot