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Flashcards in FOPC 2 Deck (18):
1

Hazard and Risk definition

  • Hazard: something with potential to cause harm
  • Risk: the likelihood of harm occurring

2

Risk factor & protective factor definition 

  • Risk factor: increases the risk of harm
  • Protective factor: decreases the risk of harm

3

Susceptibility definition

  • Susceptibility: influences the likelihood that something will cause harm

4

Categories of hazards

  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Mechanical
  • Biological
  • Psychosocial

5

Route of exposure

  • Skin
  • Blood/sexual
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestiona

6

Risk

Factors that influence the degree of risk
include:

  • how much a person is exposed
  • how the person is exposed
  • conditions of exposure

Risk combines the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved

7

Risk perception: determinants

  • Feeling in control
  • Size of the possible harm
  • Familiarity with the risk

8

1. Feeling in Control

  • Involuntary vs. voluntary risks: e.g Plane Trip v. Car Trip
  • Involuntary risks (situations where we believe we have little control) are perceived as having greater risk
  • Voluntary risks (situations we believe we have some control over) are perceived as less risk

9

2. The Size of the Possible Harm

  • Tornado v. chip pan fire
  • Risks that involve greater possible harm are perceived as greater than those involving less harm
  • Even if the less harmful events are more likely

10

3. Familiarity with the Risk

  • Nuclear plant accident vs. Food poisoning
  • Risks that are less familiar are perceived as being greater than more familiar risks

11

Individual variables in risk perception

  • previous experience,
  • attitudes towards risk,
  • values,
  • beliefs,
  • Socio economic factors
  • personality,
  • demographic factors

12

The environment 

  • Diret pathological effects
  • Indirect effects

13

Direct pathological effects

  • Physical
  • Ionising and non-ionising radiation
  • Noise and Vibration
  • Chemical
  • Pesticides
  • VOCs (volatile organic compounds) [that easily become vapors or gases. Along with carbon, they contain elements such as H, O, F, S, Cl, Br etc 23 Aug 2017[
  • Biological
  • Infectious agents
  • Allergic substances

14

Indirect effects

  • Housing e.g. overcrowding
  • Transport e.g. does it encourage walking/car use
  • Town planning e.g. access to amenities, social networks
  • Income/welfare/wealth distribution

15

Categories of hazardous exposure

  • Diet
  • Inhalarion
  • Dermal

16

Diet

 Fat
 Salt
 Bacteria
 Pesticides
 Acrylamide (a chemical created when some foods, particularly starchy foods like potatoes and bread, are cooked for long periods at high temperatures, such as when baking, frying, grilling, toasting and roasting)
 Phthalates (a group of chemicals used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break)

17

Inhalation

 Environmental Tobacco Smoke
 Smog
 Asbestos
 Legionella
 Pesticides

18

Dermal

– UV-A / UV-B
– Bacteria
– Cosmetics
– Pesticides