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Flashcards in Formative past papers 3 Deck (31):
1

Why is obesity more common in more deprived areas?

 

  • Lower (health) education 
  • Reduced cooking facilities 
  • Cost of healthy foods, so takeaways
  • Cultural expectations 
  • Unhealthy budgeting choices e.g. smoking

2

What are the 3 lay beliefs about health?

  • Absence of disease 
  • Physical fitness 
  • Functional ability

3

How is non-maleficence put into practice?

Culture of sputum and discussion with microbiology to minimise risk

4

How might someone fell healthy?

  • Lack of illness or chronic condition 
  • Regular exercise 
  • No regular medicine 
  • Ability to work and socialise 
  • Healthy diet 
  • Ability to become pregnant

5

Why might someone perceive something to be normal?

  • Media via TV programmes 
  • Might be normal for their peer/social group

6

What does a normal distribution curve look like?

Gradual increase, followed by a gradual decrease

7

What are the 6 aims of the Calgary Cambridge model?

  1. Initiating the session 
  2. Gathering information 
  3. Providing structure 
  4. Building relationship 
  5. Explanation and planning 
  6. Closing the session

8

What does ADL mean?

The activités of daily living. refers to daily self-care activities, by measuring functional status. Used especially in regards to people with disabilities and the elderly

9

What is the definition of birth rate?

A summary rate based on the number of live births in a population over a given period of time, usually one year

10

Social cognitive theory

A theory that takes into account personal, environmental, social and behavioural factors

11

What is self-efficacy?

Belief in the ability to change

12

What determines the social and economic gradient of health?

  • Access to health care 
  • Physical and social environmental exposures
  • Health behaviours 
  • Life-course factors

13

Access to healthcare defiinition

The opportunity to use healthcare regardless of whether you actually do use it

14

What does access to healthcare depend on?

Affordability 
Accessibility 
Acceptability

15

What are the childhood experiences that influence health?

  • Nutrition 
  • Trauma 
  • Nurture 
  • Optimism 
  • Education

16

What are the personal factors of the social cognitive theory?

  • Beliefs 
  • Knowledge 
  • Attitudes 
  • Self-efficacy

17

What are the environmental/social factors of the social cognitive theory?

  • Culture 
  • Location 
  • Income 
  • Social support

18

What are the behavioural factors of the social cognitive theory?

Habit 
Pattern of behaviour

19

What is involved in self-efficacy?

  • Goal-setting 
  • Effort 
  • Persistence in the face of obstacles
  • Recovery from setbacks

20

What occurs in social biology?

  • Increased BP 
  • Impaired glucose tolerance 
  • Immune dysregulation 
  • Oxidative cellular stress with accelerated ageing

21

Clinical audit

A quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against criteria and the implementation of change

22

Citirical appraisal

The process of carefully and systematically examining research to judge its trustworthiness, and its value and relevance in a particular context

23

Disease

A physiological or psychological dysfunction, the biological process is the same in each individual (unlike illness)

24

Illness

A pesions experience or subjectile notion of being ill

25

Neighbour goals

  • To Connect with the patient
  • To Summarise and Verbally Check that the reasons for attendance are clear
  • To Hand Over and bring the consultation to a close
  • To ensure that a Safety Net exists in that no serious possibilities have been missed
  • To deal with the Housekeeping of recovery and reflection.

26

Protective factor and susceptibility

  • Protective factor: decreases the risk of harm
  • Susceptibility: influences the likelihood that something will cause harm

27

There are 3 principles that govern he perception of risk:

 

 Feeling in control

 Size of the possible harm

 Familiarity with the risk

28

Individual variables in risk perception

 Previous experience,
 attitudes towards risk,
 values,
 beliefs,
 Socio economic factors
 personality,
 demographic factors

29

Indirect effects of environment

  • Housing e.g. overcrowding
  • Transport e.g. does it encourage walking/car use
  • Town planning e.g. access to amenities, social networks
  • Income/welfare/wealth distribution

30

Diet, Inhalation, dermal hazardous exposure 

 Fat
 Salt
 Bacteria
 Pesticides

 Environmental
Tobacco Smoke
 Smog
 Asbestos
 Pesticides


– UV-A / UV-B
– Cosmetics
– Pesticides

31