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Flashcards in Foreign Policy Deck (46):
1

Who was Foreign Minister in 1933?

- Constantin von Neurath

2

What was the Foreign Policy like in the Early Years?

- Need for Moderation + patience
- Nazi party viewed as reasonable + lulled many nations into a false sense of security

3

What Event Occurred in 1933? Effect?

- Germany pulled out of the League of Nations and the Disarmament Conference because no one (France) was willing to disarm

EFFECT
- Germany seems reasonable + moderate
- Encouraged people to sympathies with Germany

4

What Event Occurred in January 1934?
Effect?

- Germany signs a Non Conflict Treaty for 10 years with Poland
- Lower suspensions + lulls Poland into a false sense of security - Broke Lucano Treaty 1925

EFFECT
- Good as non-agressive
- Showing Germany to be diplomatic
- Gaining respect through signing pacts + agreements

- No official agreement was reached with Britain/Italy, but Britain was sympathizing with Germany

5

What Event Occurred in July 1934?
Effects?

- Nazi attempted to make a coup in Austria
- SS used Austrian army uniforms + invaded Vienna + Killed Dollfuss (Austrian Chancellor)
- Took control of radio station and declared that Dollfuss resigned
- Mussolini sent his troops to stop Hitler
- Conducted this in an atmosphere of fear + violence but it was a FAILURE

EFFECT
- First set back
- Too soon into dictatorship
- Needed Italy's help - gain trust of Mussolini

6

What Event Occurred in January 1935?
Effect?

- Saar voted to return to German rule, after being ruled by the League of Nations - 90% in favor

EFFECT
- Good for Germany
- People wanted to be part of Nazi regime
- Confidence boost
- Propaganda boost
- Destroying Treaty of Versailles

7

What Event Occurred in March 1935?
Effect?

- Breaking free of the Versailles Agreement
- Conscription was introduced
- Luftwaffe formed
- Peacetime army was 550000

EFFECT
- Broke Versailles Agreement terms
- Britain,France+Italy openly condemned (orally only) - formed Stresa Front with the aim of establishing a national diplomatic front against Germany
- Hitler's confidence increased - others not strong enough to league against hum
- Importance + national pride restored

8

What Event Occurred in June 1935?
Effect?

- Britain + Germany signed Ambassadorial Agreement
- Britain wanted to protect its empire
- Britain let Germany have 35% of Britain's Navel fleets (e.g. B=100, G=35)
- Britain broke Stresa Front (looks weak)

EFFECT
- Encouraged rearmament
- Increased Hitler's Power
- Not a limitation

9

What Event Occurred in October 1935?
Effect?

- Mussolini order an attack on Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

EFFECT
- Breaking Stresa Front
- Italy increasing empire
- League of Nations didn't do anything
- Hitler doesn't have attention on Germany

10

What Event Occurred in March 1936?
Effect?

- Hitler ordered troops to re-possess Rhineland
- Major political gamble since German Army wouldn't be strong enough to fight against French Army

EFFECT
- No one did anything (Britain+France) - wanted to avoid war
- Increase German strength
- Lots of industries + resources
- Hitler's positions increased - very strong

11

What Event Occurred Throughout 1936?
Effect?

- Spanish Civil War

EFFECT
- Caused political insecurity
- Italy/Germany/Russia interfered militarily
- Britain + France feared there might be a political revolution + continued with their policy of non interference/appeasement
- Attention was drawn away from central Europe
- Gave a general focus for the interests of Germany + Italy

12

What Event Occurred in November 1936?
Effect?

- Anti international communism pact with Japan
- Anti-Communist pact

EFFECT
- Germany + Japan helped each other if America attacked either one

13

What Conclusions Can be Made About Nazi Foreign Policy?

- International status of Germany had changed considerably
- Had become Dominate
- Versailles + Lacono treaties eradicated
- Germany no longer isolated
- Mussolini distanced himself from France + Britain and had gotten closer to Germany

14

What Problems did Germany Face After 1936?

1. Economic Crisis - solved by Georing's Four Year Plan

2. Conservative members of army + foreign minister wanted a more moderate policy - Hitler needed to secure their support

3. Germany wanted to make a tripartite agreement with Japan and Italy at the expense of Britain

15

What Effect did the Problems of 1936 have?

- Caused the idleness of 1937
- Clear divison bewteen diplomatic coups (35/36) and the emergencies before the war (38/39)

16

What Event Occurred in November 1937?
Effect?

- Hossbach Meeting

EFFECT
- Hossbach sacked for recording meeting
- Blueprint of steps that lead to war
- Used in Nuremberg trials to show that Hitler + Generals wanted war.

17

Why did Hitler want Anschluss?

- Wanted all German speaking nations in Europe to be part of German
- Wanted to control Austria and Sudetenland (German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia)

18

Briefly Describe the the 1934 Failed Coup in Austria.

- Austrian Chancellor tried to crack down on socialist + Nazis - Nazis were banned
- 1934 = Austrian Nazis created havoc - turned into attempt to overthrow government
- Chancellor murdered
- Failed because the Austrian military intervened
- Italy made agreement with Austria that would protect er from aggression - Mussolini honored this + moved troops to Italian boarder

19

What Happened After the Failed Coup?

- New chancellor wanted to preserve the country from German invasion by trying not to give Hitler an excuses for aggression

20

What was the German-Austrian Agreement 1936?

- Recognised the independence of Austria
- BUT Austria's foreign policy had to consistent with Germany's
- Allowed Nazis to hold official posts in Austria

21

How did the Rome-Berlin Axis Affect Austria?

- Hitler + Mussolini formalised the Rome-Berlin Axis during their joint involvement in the Spanish Civil War (36-39)
- Caused Austria to loss its protection from Italy + become vulnerable to German attack

22

What did Hitler Want from Schuschnigg when he Visited Him?

- Hitler demanded that the restriction on Austrian Nazi Party lifted + that they'd be given key government posts is Austria
- Compromised by making Seyess-Inquart (Nazi) Minister of the Interior
- Caused Hitler to order the Austrian Nazis to create as much trouble as possible to put pressure on Schuschnigg

23

Describe the Events of 09/03/1938

- Schushcnigg announced a referendum to decide if Austria wanted to be part of Germany
- If Austria voted against joining Germany Hitler couldn't invade

24

Describe the Events of 10/03/1938

- Hitler was preparing for invasion
- Hitler ordered Schuschnigg to call off referendum
- Schuschnigg knew he'd get no help form Italy + France/Britain wouldn't interfere - called off referendum + resigned
- Seyess-Inquart (Minister of the Interior) ordered to ask for German help to restore Austria

25

Describe the Events of 11/03/1938

- Hitler reassured Czechoslovakia that they had nothing to fear
-

26

Describe the Events of 12/03/1938

- German troops marched into Austria unopposed
- Hitler had control of Austria
- Month later - Hitler held a rigged referendum

27

What was the Foreign Reaction to Anschluss?

FRANCE
- French policies were in turmoil in March 1938
- 2 days before Germany invaded Austria the entire French government had resigned
- Not in a position to oppose invasion

BRITAIN
- Britain having own problems - Eden (foreign secretary) had resigned over Chamberlain's to open negotiations with Mussolini
- British population was against the idea of another European war
- Anschluss was not seen as a threat to Britain - between two German speaking nations - no good reason why Austria and Germany shouldn't unify

28

What were the Effects of Anschluss?

- Britain + France appeasement - appeared week
- Got more men power/industry/Jews- Krystallnacht
- Economic advantages
- Confidence grew
- Good relationship with Italy
- Destroyed treaty of Versailles
- Hitler won more support in Danzig (port) + won 70/72 in 1938 - came under influence of the Third Reich

29

Why was Czechoslovakia Important to Hitler?

- German speaking people - 3 million
- Industry - iron
- Versailles Treaty created there

30

How did Hitler Plan to Take Control of Czechoslovakia?

- Hitler wanted to use the Sudeten Germans to create trouble in Czech and then use it as a pretense for invading and "restoring order"
- Czechs + Slovaks were Slavic origin so considered untermenschen (subhumen)

31

How did Hitler Build Tension?
March 1938

- Hitler was supported by the Sudeten German Party under Heinlein
- Hitler ordered Heinlein to create a crisis in the county
- Sudeten Germans made increasingly bold demands from the government
- When demands couldn't be met they'd insisted that they're being persecuted

32

How did Hitler Build Tension?
April 1938

- Heinlein announced his Karlsbad Programme for Sudeten self government, independence and organised civil unrest
- Czech government were against these despite being urged by Czech allies (France+Britain)

33

How did Hitler Build Tension?
May 1938

- Hitler moved his army to Czech boarder to intimidate Czech government
- Czech army moblised and moved closer to the boarder

34

How did Hitler Build Tension?
July 1938

- Hitler promised Chamberlain that he wouldn't invade Czech if he was given control of Sudetenland

35

Describe the Events that Occured on the 12/09/1938

- Hitler increased the tensions by insisting self-determination for Czech president at Nuremberg Rally
- Sudeten Germans rioted + material law was declared in Czechoslovakia

36

Describe the Meeting that took place on 15th September 1938

- Between Hitler + Chamberlain
- Chamberlain agreed principle that Hitler could claim the Sudetenland without reprisal from Britain
- Chamberlain managed to persuade his cabinet + French government to accept deal

37

Describe the Meeting that took place on 22th September 1938

- Between Hitler + Chamberlain
- Chamberlain offered Hitler control of Sudetenland
- Hitler demanded that the Czech army leave the Sudetenland by 1st October
- Demand designed to provoke the Czechs + provide an excuse to invade whole country

38

What was the Munich Agreement?

- Meeting between Britain, Italy, France and Germany
- No representations form Czech or Russia
- Chamberlain stayed with his policy of pacifism + appeasement to give Sudetenland to Germany on the condition that he wouldn't be claiming more land
- Munich agreement meant a lot to Chamberlain but Nothing to Hitler
- Czech had to either accept it or face Germany alone
- Czech Accepted

39

What were the Effects of Munich?

- Hitler gained land
- Germany gained 3.5mil Germans/land/wealth/resources/Jews
- Britain + France weak
- Britain + France made things too easy for Hitler
- Czech suffered
- Success for Hitler
- Gave Britain time to rearm

40

What did Pro-Appeasers think about the Munich Agreement?

- Brought Britain valuable time to rearm for work
- Had previously been too weak to help Austria/Czechoslovakia

41

What did the Anti-Appeasers think about the Munich Agreement?

- Shamefully brtrayed Czech + lost a potential ally in fight against Nazi Germany
- In 1940 every third tank used in the invasion of France was built in Czechoslovakia

42

What Event Occurred in 15 March 1939?
Effect?

- German army invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia

EFFECT
- Germany gained land
- Britain + France didn't do anything

43

What Event Occurred in 31 March 1939?
Effect?

- Britain promised to defend Poland in hope of restraining Hitler

EFFECT
- Hopefully restrict Hitler - bluff

44

What Event Occurred in 22 May 1939?
Effect?

- Italy + Germany signed the Pact of Steel to protect each other in event of war

45

What Event Occurred in 23 August 1939?
Effect?

- Nazi-Soviet pact was signed by Germany + Russia
- 2 nations promised to not fight each other
- Created a good atmosphere where trade agreements were restarted between Germany + Russia
- Pact signed for 10 years
- Germany attacked Poland in the east on 01/09/39
- Britain + France continued with pacifist policies
- France + Britain wanted to meet Hitler, Hitler didn't answer
- 03/09/39 War allies declared war on Germany

46

Why didn't Hitler Expect Britain + France to Declare War?

- Britain + France followed appeasement
- Nazi-Soviet Pact
- Allies didn't want a war