Flashcards in Foreign Policy Deck (65):
Who was Foreign Minister in 1933?
- Constantin von Neurath
What was the Foreign Policy like in the Early Years?
- Need for Moderation + patience
- Nazi party viewed as reasonable + lulled many nations into a false sense of security
What Event Occurred in 1933? Effect?
- Germany pulled out of the League of Nations and the Disarmament Conference because no one (France) was willing to disarm
- Germany seems reasonable + moderate
- Encouraged people to sympathies with Germany
What Event Occurred in January 1934?
- Germany signs a Non Conflict Treaty for 10 years with Poland
- Lower suspensions + lulls Poland into a false sense of security - Broke Lucano Treaty 1925
- Good as non-agressive
- Showing Germany to be diplomatic
- Gaining respect through signing pacts + agreements
- No official agreement was reached with Britain/Italy, but Britain was sympathizing with Germany
What Event Occurred in July 1934?
- Nazi attempted to make a coup in Austria
- SS used Austrian army uniforms + invaded Vienna + Killed Dollfuss (Austrian Chancellor)
- Took control of radio station and declared that Dollfuss resigned
- Mussolini sent his troops to stop Hitler
- Conducted this in an atmosphere of fear + violence but it was a FAILURE
- First set back
- Too soon into dictatorship
- Needed Italy's help - gain trust of Mussolini
What Event Occurred in January 1935?
- Saar voted to return to German rule, after being ruled by the League of Nations - 90% in favor
- Good for Germany
- People wanted to be part of Nazi regime
- Confidence boost
- Propaganda boost
- Destroying Treaty of Versailles
What Event Occurred in March 1935?
- Breaking free of the Versailles Agreement
- Conscription was introduced
- Luftwaffe formed
- Peacetime army was 550000
- Broke Versailles Agreement terms
- Britain,France+Italy openly condemned (orally only) - formed Stresa Front with the aim of establishing a national diplomatic front against Germany
- Hitler's confidence increased - others not strong enough to league against hum
- Importance + national pride restored
What Event Occurred in June 1935?
- Britain + Germany signed Ambassadorial Agreement
- Britain wanted to protect its empire
- Britain let Germany have 35% of Britain's Navel fleets (e.g. B=100, G=35)
- Britain broke Stresa Front (looks weak)
- Encouraged rearmament
- Increased Hitler's Power
- Not a limitation
What Event Occurred in October 1935?
- Mussolini order an attack on Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
- Breaking Stresa Front
- Italy increasing empire
- League of Nations didn't do anything
- Hitler doesn't have attention on Germany
What Event Occurred in March 1936?
- Hitler ordered troops to re-possess Rhineland
- Major political gamble since German Army wouldn't be strong enough to fight against French Army
- No one did anything (Britain+France) - wanted to avoid war
- Increase German strength
- Lots of industries + resources
- Hitler's positions increased - very strong
What Event Occurred Throughout 1936?
- Spanish Civil War
- Caused political insecurity
- Italy/Germany/Russia interfered militarily
- Britain + France feared there might be a political revolution + continued with their policy of non interference/appeasement
- Attention was drawn away from central Europe
- Gave a general focus for the interests of Germany + Italy
What Event Occurred in November 1936?
- Anti international communism pact with Japan
- Anti-Communist pact
- Germany + Japan helped each other if America attacked either one
What Conclusions Can be Made About Nazi Foreign Policy?
- International status of Germany had changed considerably
- Had become Dominate
- Versailles + Lacono treaties eradicated
- Germany no longer isolated
- Mussolini distanced himself from France + Britain and had gotten closer to Germany
What Problems did Germany Face After 1936?
1. Economic Crisis - solved by Georing's Four Year Plan
2. Conservative members of army + foreign minister wanted a more moderate policy - Hitler needed to secure their support
3. Germany wanted to make a tripartite agreement with Japan and Italy at the expense of Britain
What Effect did the Problems of 1936 have?
- Caused the idleness of 1937
- Clear divison bewteen diplomatic coups (35/36) and the emergencies before the war (38/39)
What Event Occurred in November 1937?
- Hossbach Meeting
- Hossbach sacked for recording meeting
- Blueprint of steps that lead to war
- Used in Nuremberg trials to show that Hitler + Generals wanted war.
Why did Hitler want Anschluss?
- Wanted all German speaking nations in Europe to be part of German
- Wanted to control Austria and Sudetenland (German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia)
Briefly Describe the the 1934 Failed Coup in Austria.
- Austrian Chancellor tried to crack down on socialist + Nazis - Nazis were banned
- 1934 = Austrian Nazis created havoc - turned into attempt to overthrow government
- Chancellor murdered
- Failed because the Austrian military intervened
- Italy made agreement with Austria that would protect er from aggression - Mussolini honored this + moved troops to Italian boarder
What Happened After the Failed Coup?
- New chancellor wanted to preserve the country from German invasion by trying not to give Hitler an excuses for aggression
What was the German-Austrian Agreement 1936?
- Recognised the independence of Austria
- BUT Austria's foreign policy had to consistent with Germany's
- Allowed Nazis to hold official posts in Austria
How did the Rome-Berlin Axis Affect Austria?
- Hitler + Mussolini formalised the Rome-Berlin Axis during their joint involvement in the Spanish Civil War (36-39)
- Caused Austria to loss its protection from Italy + become vulnerable to German attack
What did Hitler Want from Schuschnigg when he Visited Him?
- Hitler demanded that the restriction on Austrian Nazi Party lifted + that they'd be given key government posts is Austria
- Compromised by making Seyess-Inquart (Nazi) Minister of the Interior
- Caused Hitler to order the Austrian Nazis to create as much trouble as possible to put pressure on Schuschnigg
Describe the Events of 09/03/1938
- Schushcnigg announced a referendum to decide if Austria wanted to be part of Germany
- If Austria voted against joining Germany Hitler couldn't invade
Describe the Events of 10/03/1938
- Hitler was preparing for invasion
- Hitler ordered Schuschnigg to call off referendum
- Schuschnigg knew he'd get no help form Italy + France/Britain wouldn't interfere - called off referendum + resigned
- Seyess-Inquart (Minister of the Interior) ordered to ask for German help to restore Austria
Describe the Events of 11/03/1938
- Hitler reassured Czechoslovakia that they had nothing to fear
Describe the Events of 12/03/1938
- German troops marched into Austria unopposed
- Hitler had control of Austria
- Month later - Hitler held a rigged referendum
What was the Foreign Reaction to Anschluss?
- French policies were in turmoil in March 1938
- 2 days before Germany invaded Austria the entire French government had resigned
- Not in a position to oppose invasion
- Britain having own problems - Eden (foreign secretary) had resigned over Chamberlain's to open negotiations with Mussolini
- British population was against the idea of another European war
- Anschluss was not seen as a threat to Britain - between two German speaking nations - no good reason why Austria and Germany shouldn't unify
What were the Effects of Anschluss?
- Britain + France appeasement - appeared week
- Got more men power/industry/Jews- Krystallnacht
- Economic advantages
- Confidence grew
- Good relationship with Italy
- Destroyed treaty of Versailles
- Hitler won more support in Danzig (port) + won 70/72 in 1938 - came under influence of the Third Reich
Why was Czechoslovakia Important to Hitler?
- German speaking people - 3 million
- Industry - iron
- Versailles Treaty created there
How did Hitler Plan to Take Control of Czechoslovakia?
- Hitler wanted to use the Sudeten Germans to create trouble in Czech and then use it as a pretense for invading and "restoring order"
- Czechs + Slovaks were Slavic origin so considered untermenschen (subhumen)
How did Hitler Build Tension?
- Hitler was supported by the Sudeten German Party under Heinlein
- Hitler ordered Heinlein to create a crisis in the county
- Sudeten Germans made increasingly bold demands from the government
- When demands couldn't be met they'd insisted that they're being persecuted
How did Hitler Build Tension?
- Heinlein announced his Karlsbad Programme for Sudeten self government, independence and organised civil unrest
- Czech government were against these despite being urged by Czech allies (France+Britain)
How did Hitler Build Tension?
- Hitler moved his army to Czech boarder to intimidate Czech government
- Czech army moblised and moved closer to the boarder
How did Hitler Build Tension?
- Hitler promised Chamberlain that he wouldn't invade Czech if he was given control of Sudetenland
Describe the Events that Occured on the 12/09/1938
- Hitler increased the tensions by insisting self-determination for Czech president at Nuremberg Rally
- Sudeten Germans rioted + material law was declared in Czechoslovakia
Describe the Meeting that took place on 15th September 1938
- Between Hitler + Chamberlain
- Chamberlain agreed principle that Hitler could claim the Sudetenland without reprisal from Britain
- Chamberlain managed to persuade his cabinet + French government to accept deal
Describe the Meeting that took place on 22th September 1938
- Between Hitler + Chamberlain
- Chamberlain offered Hitler control of Sudetenland
- Hitler demanded that the Czech army leave the Sudetenland by 1st October
- Demand designed to provoke the Czechs + provide an excuse to invade whole country
What was the Munich Agreement?
- Meeting between Britain, Italy, France and Germany
- No representations form Czech or Russia
- Chamberlain stayed with his policy of pacifism + appeasement to give Sudetenland to Germany on the condition that he wouldn't be claiming more land
- Munich agreement meant a lot to Chamberlain but Nothing to Hitler
- Czech had to either accept it or face Germany alone
- Czech Accepted
What were the Effects of Munich?
- Hitler gained land
- Germany gained 3.5mil Germans/land/wealth/resources/Jews
- Britain + France weak
- Britain + France made things too easy for Hitler
- Czech suffered
- Success for Hitler
- Gave Britain time to rearm
What did Pro-Appeasers think about the Munich Agreement?
- Brought Britain valuable time to rearm for work
- Had previously been too weak to help Austria/Czechoslovakia
What did the Anti-Appeasers think about the Munich Agreement?
- Shamefully brtrayed Czech + lost a potential ally in fight against Nazi Germany
- In 1940 every third tank used in the invasion of France was built in Czechoslovakia
What Event Occurred in 15 March 1939?
- German army invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia
- Germany gained land
- Britain + France didn't do anything
What Event Occurred in 31 March 1939?
- Britain promised to defend Poland in hope of restraining Hitler
- Hopefully restrict Hitler - bluff
What Event Occurred in 22 May 1939?
- Italy + Germany signed the Pact of Steel to protect each other in event of war
What Event Occurred in 23 August 1939?
- Nazi-Soviet pact was signed by Germany + Russia
- 2 nations promised to not fight each other
- Created a good atmosphere where trade agreements were restarted between Germany + Russia
- Pact signed for 10 years
- Germany attacked Poland in the east on 01/09/39
- Britain + France continued with pacifist policies
- France + Britain wanted to meet Hitler, Hitler didn't answer
- 03/09/39 War allies declared war on Germany
Why didn't Hitler Expect Britain + France to Declare War?
- Britain + France followed appeasement
- Nazi-Soviet Pact
- Allies didn't want a war
Describe Hitler's Early Victory Over Poland.
- Germany succeeded in overcoming Poland within a few weeks through Blitzkrieg
- Shows strength of Germany
- Confidence boost - Quickly
- Leabanstrum achieved
- Gained resources/labour/etc
- Experience of war
- Russia didn't stop Hitler - Munich Agreement
Describe Germany's Attack on France May 1940
- Attack planned for November 1939 - prospered due to luke warm attitudes of Generals
- Took place in May 1940 - prolonging the Anglo-French Phoney war for 8 months
Why did Hitler Target France?
Wanted to nutralise the democratic countries in the west before continuing Lebensraum
Describe the Attack on Norway + Denmark
- April 1940 - Germany army occupied Denmark + Norway's major ports
- Norway = essential - major entry for Swedish iron to Germany (important for arms)
What were the Effects of the Early Victories?
- More land
- More resource
- Conquered France in 6 weeks = confidence boost
- German citizens were very happy
- More Aryans/Jews
- Hitler controlled Paris/Oslo/Vienna/Prague/Waslaw/Berlin
How did Germany's Early Victories Effect Britain?
- Churchill refused to let Britain settle with Germany
- Germany needed to secure air superiority to invade Britain - Germany's failure to win Battle of Britain was significant
- Germany switched military focus to USSR before Britain had been nutralised - Mistake?
What was Announced on 18th December 1939?
Why did Hitler Decide to Go to War With Russia Before They Defeated Britain?
- Aimed to be a quick campaign
- Hitler believed that Blitzkrieg could succeed - over confident due to previous success?
What were Hitler's Aims for Operation Barbarossa?
- Destroy communism/Bolshevism
- Gain labour/industry/power
Describe the German Attack Russia 1941
- Postponed for months - Germany had to secure its southern boarder
- Invasion of Soviet Union took place June 1941
- Started well (Germany nearly captured Stalingrad + defeating Britain in Egypt)
- Despite the Nazi-Soviet Agreement signed August 1939, Hitler continued to attack Russia since Russia was a strategic threat his European empire + was birthplace of Bolshevism
- Germany won a lot of land + prisoners but Russia did not give up
- By Decmeber 1941, Difference apprared between Hitler + his gernerals, Anglo- American support and Russian dangers - Caused Germany to stop Advancing
Why did Operation Barbarossa Fail?
1. Vastness of USSR
2. Inability to Target Soviet Industry
4. Poor Intelligence
5. Occupation Policy
6. Contrast Interference of Hitler in Milotary Operations
7. Not Accounting for a Long War
8. Problems in the Rear
9. Determination of the Soviet Population
11. Germans Didn't Have Enough
Why was December 1941 a Turning Point?
- Pearl Harbor - America in the war
- Hitler had lost his military + diplomatic grip - out of the Fuhrer's control
- Hitler responding to circumstances + make strategic judgments which were shaped by self-delusion + his own warped view of the world rather than rational assessment of the situation
How did the Effects of December 1941 Impact the Events of 1942?
- Allies gradually began to win the war
- German forces continued to push deeper into Russian oil fields
- June 1942 = Americans defeated the Japanese at the Battle of Midway
- November 1942 = Britain won Battle of El-Alamein in Egypt - led to the ejection of German forces from North Africa
- January 1943 - Russians defeated Nazis at the Battle of Stalingrad - 300000 German troops surrendered = beginning of the Soviet counter offensive
Why has the Winter of 1942/43 Been Described as the "Turning of the Tides" for Hitler?
- German failure in Stalingrad was major - a large number of soldiers were lost + Russians exploited their success by winning the Battle of Kursk in July 1943 - led red army to liberate Eastern Europe + attack Germany
- British victory in Egypt in November 1942 forced Germany out of North Africa
- Effects were difficult to hide from public - Propaganda couldn't hide the defeat - Bombing raids wreaked destruction + dislocation. Germany faced total devastation unless they surrendered - JULY BOMB PLOT
Describe Hitler's Continued Obsession with the Jews
- New Radical Order created - meant he could eradicate the Jewish community
What did Hitler Think Would Happen to the Relationship Between the Western Allies and Russia?
- Couldn't continue as friends after the war
- He thought he'd be able to play one against the other
- Military cooperation continued between the allies + Russia fairly well
- End 1943 = Anglo-American forces had joined in Africa + established hold of southern Italy + Russia was recovering much of the Ukraine
- Allied invasion of Normandy occurred as Allies liberated Paris
- German troops overwhelmed the British resistance - Germany had initially success - however they were outnumbered + retreated
- USA forces joined the Allied forces + blind optimism prevailed
Explain the Events of 1945
- April 1945 = Soviet soldiers advanced to within a mile of the chancellery in Berlin that Hitler committed suicide