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Flashcards in Opposition Deck (18):

What are the Types of Opposition?

1. Passive Opposition
2. Active Opposition


Describe how the KPD was Political Opposition?

- 1932 - KPD membership = 17% of vote (300000 seats)
- Communist leaflets/magazines/newspapers distributed
- 1935 - 5000 active communists in Berlin
- Leaders escaped to Moscow


What were the Strengths of the KPD?

- They were supported by the Soviet Union (red army)
- Had Trade Union Links
- Organised
- Violent
- Extreme


What were the Weaknesses of the KPD?

- Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939-41) compromised Resistance
- Active resistance was limited + geared towards self-preservation
- Dependent on exiled leaders
- Did not cooperate with other left wing parties


Describe how the SPD were Political Opposition

- Purged + Banned by the Nazis
- Socialist were arrested
- Leaders fled to Prague
- SOPADE (socialist in excile) set up
- Collected valuable information about life in Nazi Germany


What were the Strengths of the SPD?

- Had trade union links
- Considered respectable


What were the Weaknesses of the SPD?

- Would not cooperate with other left wing groups
- Banned
- Small, passive groups rather than active


Describe how the Conservatives were Political Opposition

- 33-39 = worked with Nazi government
- Didn't agree with the extremes used
- Few chose to resist him - passive?
- motivation = Nazis had failed to maintain rule of law


What were the Strengths of the Conservatives?

- Wealthy


What were the Weaknesses of the Conservatives?

- Same ideology


Describe how the Church was a Religious Opposition

- Neither of the churches coordinated - therefore enjoyed a degree of independence
- Adopted a pragmatic policy towards the Nazis
- Stood up for their own practices + traditions - genuinely refrained from wholesale denunciations of the regime
- 95% Germany = Christians


What were the Similarities Between the Church and the Nazi Regime?

- Both hated communism
- Churches believed the personal behaviour under the Weimar Republic had deteriorated
- Believed that Jews had become too prominent + needed to be dealt with leaglly
- Shared views on strong family values
- Saw the war on the east as a holy crusade


How did the Protestant Church Oppose the Nazis?

- Confessional Church
- Led by Niemoller + Bonhoeffer
- Wanted to retain its independence
- Did not oppose the Nazis ideologically but on the grounds that the church had lost its independence
- Niemoller sent to concentration camp + Bonhoeffer was executed


How did the Catholic Church Oppose the Nazis?

- More centralised + governed by the Pope
- Concordat signed in 1933
- Some Nazi polices were popular BUT tensions increased when Catholic youth groups were banned, Crucifixes banned from schools + priests arrested
- 1941 = Bishop von Galen criticized the euthanasia program (stopped for short period) protested at removal of crucifixes


What were the Strengths of the Religious Opposition?

- Very big group - 95% of Germans
- Extremely influential
- Moral opposition


What were the Weaknesses of the Religious Opposition?

- Passive
- Nieve?
- Concordat
- Potsdam Day


Describe how the Army were Military Opposition

- Never been fully coordinated
- Common ground between army hierarchy and Hitler
- Army felt that it could work with the Nazis - legal revolution


What was the Opposition From the Youth?

- Middle class
- Listened to banned music (e.g. jazz)
- Never seen as a threat

- Urban/working class
- Resented the Hitler Youth (pre-war) = not a threat
- Developed a protest movement
- Met in parks/street corners + formed gangs
- During the War = activity increased + threatened the regimes stability by opposing the regime which resulted in a number of public executions

- Most radical - more than just nonconformity
- Led by Hans+Sophie Scholl based from Munich Uni
- Distributed leaflets amongst towns and unis - leaflets openly condemned the war + was highly political
- This groups represented a brave gesture of defiance + sacrifice for it
- Leaders executed in 1944