Flashcards in Opposition Deck (18):
What are the Types of Opposition?
1. Passive Opposition
2. Active Opposition
Describe how the KPD was Political Opposition?
- 1932 - KPD membership = 17% of vote (300000 seats)
- Communist leaflets/magazines/newspapers distributed
- 1935 - 5000 active communists in Berlin
- Leaders escaped to Moscow
What were the Strengths of the KPD?
- They were supported by the Soviet Union (red army)
- Had Trade Union Links
What were the Weaknesses of the KPD?
- Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939-41) compromised Resistance
- Active resistance was limited + geared towards self-preservation
- Dependent on exiled leaders
- Did not cooperate with other left wing parties
Describe how the SPD were Political Opposition
- Purged + Banned by the Nazis
- Socialist were arrested
- Leaders fled to Prague
- SOPADE (socialist in excile) set up
- Collected valuable information about life in Nazi Germany
What were the Strengths of the SPD?
- Had trade union links
- Considered respectable
What were the Weaknesses of the SPD?
- Would not cooperate with other left wing groups
- Small, passive groups rather than active
Describe how the Conservatives were Political Opposition
- 33-39 = worked with Nazi government
- Didn't agree with the extremes used
- Few chose to resist him - passive?
- motivation = Nazis had failed to maintain rule of law
What were the Strengths of the Conservatives?
What were the Weaknesses of the Conservatives?
- Same ideology
Describe how the Church was a Religious Opposition
- Neither of the churches coordinated - therefore enjoyed a degree of independence
- Adopted a pragmatic policy towards the Nazis
- Stood up for their own practices + traditions - genuinely refrained from wholesale denunciations of the regime
- 95% Germany = Christians
What were the Similarities Between the Church and the Nazi Regime?
- Both hated communism
- Churches believed the personal behaviour under the Weimar Republic had deteriorated
- Believed that Jews had become too prominent + needed to be dealt with leaglly
- Shared views on strong family values
- Saw the war on the east as a holy crusade
How did the Protestant Church Oppose the Nazis?
- Confessional Church
- Led by Niemoller + Bonhoeffer
- Wanted to retain its independence
- Did not oppose the Nazis ideologically but on the grounds that the church had lost its independence
- Niemoller sent to concentration camp + Bonhoeffer was executed
How did the Catholic Church Oppose the Nazis?
- More centralised + governed by the Pope
- Concordat signed in 1933
- Some Nazi polices were popular BUT tensions increased when Catholic youth groups were banned, Crucifixes banned from schools + priests arrested
- 1941 = Bishop von Galen criticized the euthanasia program (stopped for short period) protested at removal of crucifixes
What were the Strengths of the Religious Opposition?
- Very big group - 95% of Germans
- Extremely influential
- Moral opposition
What were the Weaknesses of the Religious Opposition?
- Potsdam Day
Describe how the Army were Military Opposition
- Never been fully coordinated
- Common ground between army hierarchy and Hitler
- Army felt that it could work with the Nazis - legal revolution