Flashcards in Formative Test Research Deck (24)
What is the equation for calculating units of alcohol?
(Strength (%) x volume (ml)) / 1000 = units
What class of drug should you give people going through alcohol withdrawal (medically assisted alcohol withdrawal)?
Benzodiazepine (not lorazepam for some reason).
Give examples of benzodiazepines.
What is the osmolal gap and what does it indicate?
A difference between calculated and measured serum osmolality. Indicates there are toxins in the blood e.g. ethanol or methanol.
What cancers does alcohol increase the risk of?
What is hepatorenal syndrome?
Life threatening condition involving rapid deterioration in kidney function in individuals with cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure.
What is thought to cause hepatorenal syndrome?
Changes in blood flow to the kidneys.
Where does aspiration pneumonia usually effect?
Superior segment of the right lower lobe.
What arthropathy is alcohol a risk factor of and why?
Associated with increased precipitation of uric acid.
What are the unit limits of men and women per week?
Best to spread drinking evenly over 3 or more days.
What are the binge drinking limits for men and women?
Men - 8 units of alcohol in a single session.
Women - 6 units of alcohol in a single session.
What are the basic steps of the haem breakdown pathway?
Haem -> biliverdin -> bilirubin
What are the full names of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT?
AST - aspartate aminotransferase/transaminase
ALT - alanine aminotransferase/transaminase
ALP - alkaline phosphatase
GGT - gamma-glutamyl transferase
What is the space that surrounds hepatocytes in the liver?
Space of disse
Are hepatocytes present in the portal tract/triad?
Are lymphocytes present in the portal tract/triad?
How many calories does 1g of alcohol contain?
What clotting factor does the liver not produce? (think 1972)
Is portal hypertension more associated with hepato or splenomegaly and why?
Due to backflow of blood into spleen through the splenic vein.
What is beriberi?
Chronic thiamine deficiency.
Describe wet beriberi.
Affects cardiovascular system
Causes fast heart rate, SOB and leg swelling
Describe dry beriberi.
Affects neurological system
Causes numbness of hands and feet, confusion, trouble moving the legs and pain.
Also causes wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.
Can lactate be used in a person with a severe GI bleed to measure perfusion?
(Can't find it in any books tho lmao but for exams sake yes)