Flashcards in Fortified Wines Deck (61):
What are the 3 distinct soil types found in Jerez.
Albariza - most important - chalky
Barros - clay - inferior
Arenas - sandy - inferior
A small group of producers that are permitted to mature Sherry but not sell it is called what.
What is the climate in Jerez?
Hot Mediterranean, sunny
Aging warehouses in Jerez, Sanlucar de Barrameda or Puerto de Santa Maria are called what.
What are the 2 winds that affect the climate in Jerez?
Poniente - is cool and humid
Levante - is hot and drying
What are the 3 grapes permitted in Jerez used to make sherry?
Palomino (thrives on Albariza)
Pedro Ximenez PX - used to make sweet wine
Muscat of Alexandria (Moscatel) - grows best in Arena soils used to make sweet wines
What is the grape used to make Dry Sherries?
What does flor feed upon?
Alcohol and Oxygen to produce CO2 and acetaldehyde which gives certain sherries their unique flavour.
Flor cannot thrive off wine above what level of abv?
PX and Muscat are raisinated in the sun prior to making sweet sherries.
Finos are fortified to _ % abv and Olorosos _ % abv.
15% and 17%
Wines that have a well developed flor and light body are classified as Fino where fuller body and little to no flor developed are classified as Oloroso.
The maturation system used for Sherry is called what.
How does it work?
Solera - fractional blending
Young wines are blended with older wines in a criaderas (3-14)
Each criadera is blended with a slightly younger wine from a higher criadera to achieve consistency.
What are the 8 styles of Sherry?
Pedro Ximenez (PX)
- all made mainly of Palomino except PX
Which of these Sherry styles is not aged oxidatively?
Which of these wines are fortified after fermentation
C) Vin Doux Naturels
D) Rutherglen Liqueur Muscat
Which of these wines are not aged biologically?
D) Palo Cortado
C + D
What is Vinos Generosos?
Dry Sherry bottled directly from Solera System - low volume, premium price
Montilla-Moriles is fortified after fermentation.
Pale lemon, aromas of almonds, herbs, and dough. Sometimes tangy, salty. Should be consumed fresh.
Deep Brown dominated by oxidative aromas like toffee, leather, spice and walnut. PX adds flavour of dried fruit. Alcohol level of oldest wines can reach 22%.
Amber or brown - yeast and oxidative aromas. Halfway between a Fino and Oloroso.
Describe Palo Cortados.
Rare and considered finest sherry.
Have flor character of Amontillado and weight of Oloroso. Expensive.
Describe PX Sherry.
Deep brown intensely sweet. Dried fruit, coffee and liquorice.
What are the 3 Categories of sherries known as Vinos Generosos de Licor.
Pale Cream - sweetened fino
Medium Sherry - Amontillado and sweet sherry blend
Cream Sherries - Oloroso and sweet sherry blend
What is Manzanilla.
Wines matured in the coastal town of Sanlucar de Barrameda - separate DO to Jerez. Wines have an intense tangy aroma - most famous is Manzanilla Fina.
Manzanilla Passada is Amontillado style.
What is VORS and VOS?
Age indication classifications for Sherry. Avg age of blend is 30 yrs old.
What is the climate for Madeira?
Hot, humid and sub tropical.
What is the climate for Port in Duoro Valley and Vila Nova de Gaia.
Duoro Valley - hot continental
Vila Nova de Gaia - warm maritime (maturation lodges)
Describe the maturation of Port.
Old oak casks of various sizes for a few mos to 40 yrs. Long oxidative aging results in age indicated on Tawny Port. Some Ruby and Vintage styles matured in stainless steel and bottle only.
What forms a rain shadow in Duoro vineyards.
Serra do Murao.
Vineyards in Baixo and Cima Corgo require a lot of spraying for mildew.
False - very dry and hot springs and summers.
What is the biggest viticulture challenge in Duoro?
Steep slopes - narrow terraces - cannot be mechanized - expensive to maintain.
Which is not a type of vineyard planting in Duoro?
C) vinho ao alto
D. A beneficio is a system used to control port production (approved vineyards)
A, B are terrace systems
C is an unterraced layout.
What is Dulces Naturales?
Naturally sweet sherries, rare, used as a component in sweetened sherries.
What is the beneficio.
Quality level of vineyard used to control Port production. Includes factors like yield, grape variety, aspect, soil type - vineyards awarded A - F (A being the best).
Each year IVDP authorizes how many grapes can me made into Port using predictions for vintage and stock levels. The "beneficio" is divided by approved vineyards - better vineyards get to sell more grapes into Port production.
How many grape varieties can go into Port production?
Over 29 are recommended, over 80 are authorized.
What are the main grape grape varieties in Port?
What are 2 white Port grape varieties?
Serial and Malvasia
Describe the vinification of Port
Rapid extraction of colour and tannin in 24-36 hours after wine is fortified with aguardente during fermentation when sugar has been converted to 6-9% abv. This kills the yeast and stops fermentation. Fortification takes place in seasoned oak or SS vats.
New wood is used to age Port.
False - that wild give excessive wood flavours - old seasoned casks and vats are used to age Port.
Describe white Port.
Golden colour, low acid, some honey and nut from oxidation. Off dry to sweet. Non- Vintage, sold at 2-3yrs old. Some wood ageing.
Where is Rutherglen Muscat produced?
B) Sierra Foothills
C) New South Whales
What type of soil is in the Duoro Valley?
What are the 3 main Ruby Port Categories and describe their styles.
Ruby Port - deep coloured, fruity, ready to drink, no benefit from bottle aging.
Reserve Ruby Port - blend of higher qlty wine from 1 or more vintages, cask matured up to 5yrs prior to bottling - full bodied, richer fruit, integrated alcohol, filtered - no decanting needed
LBV - from a specific vintage, aged 4-6 yrs before bottling - 2 styles - Modern LBV is filtered doesn't need decanting - most common
Bottle Matured LBV - unfiltered - released after 3 yrs of bottle ageing.
What are the 4 main Tawny Port Categories and describe their styles.
Tawny Port - lighter colour, less extracted than Ruby
Reserve Tawny Port - 7+ yrs matured in wood, more complex, smooth - more tawny colour - blend of different vintages
Age Indicated Tawny - 10, 20, 30 or 40 + - age is an average - bottle must state yr of bottling as they lose freshness after bottling. Complex and concentrated. No sediment. Aromas of walnuts, coffee, chocolate, caramel, faded berry.
Colheita Port - rare, single vintage, aged in wood min 8 yrs.
Vintage Ports are intended for bottle ageing without filtration.
Compare Vintage Ports to Single Quinta Vintage Ports.
Vintage Ports are blends of producers best vineyards when they declare a vintage year (2000, 2003, 2007). Full, Rich, tannic when young - mature slowly, need decanting.
Single Quinta Vintage Ports - made same way as Vintage Ports but from a single estate that declare a vintage year - made more frequently than Vintage Ports.
What is the climate for Madeira?
Hot, humid, sub tropical.
What are the 4 noble varieties for Madeira?
Serial - acid, fruit and nut
Verdelho - acid, aromatic
Boal - sweet
Malvasia (Malmsey) - sweetest, honey, raisin, caramel
Tinta Negra is a noble variety used to make Madeira.
False - it is not a noble variety. It is a red grape used to produce Madeira wines dry to sweet.
Madeira is fortified during fermentation.
True - with 96% abv grape spirit.
What are the 2 methods used to heat Madeira during production.
Canteiros - left in casks in the lofts of lodges, heated by the sun
Sold after 3 yrs ageing
Estufa - Pumped into heated containers for 3 mos at 45-50C
sold after 2 years ageing
Describe the maturation of Madeira?
Heated in early stages in Canteiros or Estufas. Then inert or oak barrels depending on style and quality.
What are the 2 categories of vintage dated Madeira.
Colheita - 5 yrs cask aged, Tinta Negra blend
Frasqueira (Vintage) - ultimate expression, noble based, aged 20+ yrs in cask.
What are Vin Doux Naturels (VDN)
Fortified wines from France made by adding grape spirit to a partially fermented must to make a strong sweet wine (15-20%)
Muscat de Beaumes de Venise is a VDN from where?
Muscat de Beaumes de Venise AC and Muscat de Saint Jean de Minervois AC are examples of what kind of wine from what grape?
Vin Doux Naturels from Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains
Name 4 VDNs made with Grenache?
Rasteau AC - Rhone
Banyuls AC, Maury AC, Rivesaltes AC (Roussillion)
Which is the only VDN AC that permits the inferior Muscat of Alexandria?
Muscat de Rivesalts AC