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Flashcards in Foundation Engineering Deck (74):
1

the lowest division of a building, its substructure, or other construction, constructed partly or wholly below the surface of the ground, designed to support and anchor the superstructure above and transmit its load directly to the earth

Foundation

2

that part of the structure that supports the weight of the structure and transmits the load to underlying soil or rock

Foundation

3

applies the knowledge of soil mechanic, rock mechanics, geology and structural engineering to the design and construction of foundation for buildings and other structures.

foundation engineering

4

a foundation system type which is employed when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near to the ground surface, they are placed directly below the lowest part of the sub-structure and transfer building loads directly to the supporting soil by vertical pressure

shallow foundation

5

a foundation system type employed when the soil underlying a foundation is unstable to transfer building loads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or dense sand and gravel well below the superstructure

deep foundation

6

that part of a foundation bearing directly upon the supporting soil, set below the natural grade line and enlarged to distribute its load over a greater area.

footing

7

a reinforced concrete beam distributing the horizontal forces from an eccentrically loaded pile cap or spread footing to other pile caps or footings

tie beam/footing tie beam/grade beam

8

a reinforced concrete beam supporting a superstructure at or near a ground level and transferring the load to isolated footings, piers or piles

tie beam/ footing tie beam/ grade beam

9

that part of a building or structure which is above the level of the adjoining ground or the level of the foundation

superstructure

10

the underlying structure forming the foundation of a building or other construction

substructure

11

something that underlies or serves as a base or foundation. also called substrate

substratum

12

the actual pressure developed between the footing and the supporting soil mass, equal to the quotient of the magnitude of the forces and the area of contact

soil pressure/contact pressure

13

the horizontal component of resistance developed by a soil mass against the horizontal movement of a vertical structure through the soil

passive soil pressure

14

occurs usually at the side of the retaining walls between the walls and the surrounding soil

passive soil pressure

15

the horizontal component of pressure that a soil mass exert on a vertical retaining wall

active soil pressure

16

the maximum unit pressure a foundation is permitted to impose vertically or laterally on a supporting soil mass

allowable bearing pressure/ allowable bearing capacity/allowable soil pressure

17

a layer of coarse granular materials placed and compacted on undistributed soil prepared fill to prevent the capillary rise of moisture to a concrete ground slab

base course

18

the gradual reduction in the volume of a soil mass resulting from the application of a sustained load and an increase in compressive stress

consolidation

19

a reduction in volume of a soil mass under the action of a sustained load, due chiefly to a squeezing out of water from the voids within the mass and a transfer of the load from the soil water to the soil solids. also called primary compression

primary consolidation

20

a reduction in volume of a soil mass under the action of a sustained load, due chiefly to adjustment of the internal structure

secondary consolidation

21

the gradual subsiding of the structure

settlement

22

the relative movement of parts of a structure caused by uneven settlement

differential settlement

23

a single spread footing supporting a freestanding column or pier

isolated footing

24

a type of isolated footing having inclined top, sloping towards the edges

square sloped footing

25

a type of footing that changes levels in stages with the center having the thickest part of the footing

stepped footing

26

a footing rectangular in plan and supporting load of unequal magnitudes in both axes

rectangular footing

27

a reinforced concrete footing for a perimeter column or foundation wall extended to support an interior column load

combined footing

28

a type of combined footing rectangular in plan and supporting two columns. column loads are assumed to be of the same magnitude

rectangular combined footing

29

column loads on this type of footing are assumed to be unequal magnitude

trapezoidal combined footing

30

a type of beam-like footing placed underneath the ground in order to transmit and provide additional rigidity to two or more columns

footing tie beam

31

reinforced concrete beam supporting a bearing wall at or near the ground level and transferring the load to isolated footings, piers or piles

grade beam

32

a reinforced concrete footing extended to support a row of columns

continuous footing

33

the continuous spread footing of a foundation wall

strip footing

34

a reinforced concrete footing connected by a tie beam to another footing in order to balance an asymmetrically imposed load

strap/cantilever/connected footing

35

a thick, slab-like heavily reinforced concrete footing supporting a number of columns or an entire building

mat foundation

36

a mat foundation reinforced by grid or ribs

ribbed mat

37

a composite structure of reinforced concrete slabs and basement walls

cellular mat

38

a mat providing a footing on yielding soil, usually for an entire building, placed so that the weight of the displaced soil exceeds the weight of the construction

raft foundation

39

a framework of crossing beams for spreading heavy loads over large areas

grillage/grid foundation

40

a foundation used in yielding soil, having for its footing a raft placed deep enough that the weight of excavated soil is equal to or greater than the weight of the construction supported

floating foundation

41

a system of piles, pile caps, and tie beams for transferring building loads down to a suitable bearing stratum, used esp. when the soil mass directly below the construction is not suitable for the direct bearing of footings

pile foundation

42

a footing-like member which joins the heads of a cluster of piles in order to distribute the load from a column or grade beam equally among the piles

pile cap

43

a type of precast footing provided with a socket to receive a precast column

precast socket foundation

44

a continuous type of footing intended to support as well as transmit the load imposed by the wall directly to the ground

wall footing

45

a long-slender column of wood, steel, or reinforced concrete, driven or hammered vertically into the earth to form part of a foundation system

pile

46

a pile depending principally on the bearing resistance of soil or rock beneath its foot for support. also called point-bearing pile

end bearing pile

47

a pile depends principally on the frictional resistance of surrounding earth for support

friction pile

48

log driven usually a friction pile, often filled with a steel shoe and a drive band

timber pile

49

a steel H-section, sometimes encased in concrete to a point below the water table to prevent corrosion

H-Pile

50

heavy steel pipe driven with the lower end either open or closed by a heavy steel plate or point and filled with concrete

pipe pile

51

has a round, square or polygonal cross section and sometimes an open core; often prestressed

precast concrete pile

52

pile constructed by driving a steel pipe or casing into the ground until it meets the required resistance and then filling it with concrete

cased pile

53

pile constructed by driving a cncrete plug into the ground along with a steel casing until it meets the required resistance, and then ramming concrete into place as the casing is withdrawn

uncased pile

54

pile that carries superimposed loads

bearing pile

55

driven at an inclination to resist forces that are not vertical

batter pile

56

used in cofferdarn construction to support the horizontal wall that in turn supports vertical sheet piling

guide pile

57

driven at wharves or in front of a large masonry structure to protect them from sudden blows

fender pile

58

used to resist lateral pressure of the earth and to form a wall intended to be watertight

sheet pile

59

a h-section steel pipe driven vertically into the ground to support horizontal lagging

soldier pile

60

heavy timber planks joined together side by side to retain the face of an excavation

lagging

61

deviation of the pile from its plan location or from the vertical which may result in a reduction of its allowable load

pile eccentricity

62

a machine for driving piles

pile driver

63

a type of pile driver which is raised by means of a rope and then allowed to be dropped

drop hammer

64

a type of pile driver that is automatically raised and dropped a short distance

steam pile hammer

65

the steam is applied to raise the striking part of the hammer, then allowed to fall by gravity

single acting steam hammer

66

the steam pressure raises the hammer and also reinforces the action of gravity during descent

double acting steam

67

a cast-in-place concrete foundation

pier

68

a pier to permit inspection of the bottom

caisson

69

a caisson that is drilled into a stratum of solid rock rafter than belled

socketed caisson

70

a socketed caisson having a steel h-section core within a concrete-filled pipe casing

rock caisson

71

a watertight box made of timber and concrete, having a bottom, but no top

box caisson

72

a self-contained box structure made of timber, metal and concete

open caisson

73

a type of caisson having opening at the bottom and closed at the top

pneumatic caisson

74

a temporary enclosure in a river, lake, etc. to keep water from the enclosed area

cofferdarn