Fracture biomechanics and classification Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fracture biomechanics and classification Deck (44):
1

What are the forces that must be neutralized for a fracture to heal?

1. bending
2. torsion
3. compression
4. tensino

2

What determines what forces predominate at a fracture site?

1. geometry of fracture
2. location of muscle groups

3

Compression is good for what type of fracture and bad for what other type of fracture?

1. good for transverse fracture to reduce motion
2. bad for oblique fracture because fragments shear past

4

How are fractures classified?

1. extent of soft tissue
2. degree of cortical disruption
3. geometry
4. location in bone
5. degree and direction of displacement

5

What does bending cause?

agnulation

6

What happens to the bone with bending?

1. one side is being compressed (concave) and one side is has tension (convex)

7

Where is the neutral axis of a bone?

usually in the centre of the medullary canal and is where there is neither tension nor compression

8

What happens if you fix a bone with something that runs down the neutral axis?

the apparatus will be subjected to less bending force than something running down the outside of the bone

9

What does torsion cause?

rotation

10

What is torsion

the tendency for a bone or its pieces to twist around long axis

11

Where does compressino act?

along the long axis of bone and moves ends of bone twoard eachother

12

What happens if compression is applied to an oblique fracture?

there is overriding-->shear

13

What does tension cause?

distraction/avulsion fractures of apophyses (olecranon and calcaneus)

14

What control do casts and splints provide?

1. bending
2. ok torsion

15

What control do wires provide

1. good tension
(no others)

16

What control do intramedullary pins provide?

1. good bending
(no others)

17

What control do interlocking nails provide

1. bending
2. tension
3. torsion
4. compression

18

What control do external skeletal fixation provide?

1. bending
2. tension--but rare use for this
3. torsion
4. compression

19

What control do bone plates provide?

good control of all but
weakest in combined compression and bending

20

What control do bone plates provide?

good control of all but
weakest in combined compression and bending

21

When does a bone fracture?

when the magnitude of the force placed upon it at a specific site exceeds its ability to resist the force without deforming permanently

22

What is a closed fracture?

no wound connecting bone to outside world

23

What is an open fracture

there is a connection with open world

24

What is a greenstick gracture

bending or folding fracture. the cortex doesn't actually break all the way through but bones deforms

25

What is a fissure?

it is a crack and only involves one cortex and is usually longitudinally oriented

26

What is a saucer?

a divot that gets taken out of one cortex (e.g. horse 3rd metacarpal)

27

what is a complete fracture?

both cortices are disrupted

28

What is a depression

e.g. in skull

29

What is a transverse fracture?

A fracture perpendicular to long axis of bone
Torsion is a big problem, compression good

30

What is an oblique fracture?

short or long.

31

What are the two types of oblique fracutre?

short and long (long is more than twice the diameer of the bone

32

What is a big problem with oblique fractures?

shearing

33

What is a spiral fracture

a spiral, shearing also a problem

34

What are types of comminuted fractures?

1. butterfly
2. highly comminuted
3. segmental
4. multiple fracture

35

What two things determine if a fracture is simple or highly comminuted?

1. the magnitude of the force and the speed of the force

36

What does it mean that bone is a viscoelastic force?

it means that its deformation properties depend on loading rate

37

Distinguish bone breaking between slow and fast application of force?

1. slow application: less force before bone bends and breaks
2. fast application: more energy absorbed, but more energy so shatters--more concomitant soft tissue damage (high energy)

38

Where can fractures be located?

1. articular
2. physeal
3. metaphyseal
4. diaphyseal (proximal, middle or distal third)
5. condylar/suparcondylar/subtronchanteric

39

Where can fractures be located?

1. articular
2. physeal
3. metaphyseal
4. diaphyseal (proximal, middle or distal third)
5. condylar/suparcondylar/subtronchanteric

40

What are to ways you can describe displacement with regard to fracture?

1. displaced
2. non-displaced--suggests intact periosteal sleeve

41

How do you describe displacement?

by referring to the distal fragment location relative to proximal

42

How can you describe the angle made by fragments?

describe what way the vertex of the angle is pointing

43

What are 4 causes of fracture?

1. traumatic
2. pathologic
3. fatigue
4. iatrogenic

44

why do we care about fracture classification?

1. strong influence on how will heal