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1

جان کلام the main idea and meaning of what someone has said or written. the --- of. The --- of his argument is that full employment is impossible. Don't worry about all the details as long as you get the --- (= understand the main meaning ) of it.

gist

2

1 an increase in something. --- in. an --- in sales. 2 a feeling of happiness and hope

uplift

3

قطب جنوب

antarctica

4

the study of the forming and movement of the large sheets of rock that form the surface of the Earth

plate tectonics noun [ uncountable ]

5

رد کردن نظریه to show that something is wrong or not true OPP prove. These figures --- Smith's argument.

disprove

6

پیچیدگی 1 having a lot of small parts or details put together in a complicated way SYN intricate. pure silks embroidered with --- patterns

elaborate

7

elaborate

intricate

8

carefully planned and organized in great detail SYN complex. a very --- telecommunications network

elaborate

9

water that has frozen into a solid state : --- cubes in her Coke | the --- on the lake

ice

10

an area of thick ice that permanently covers the North and South Poles : We all know that the polar --- are melting because of global warming.

ice cap

11

a very large mass of ice floating in the sea, most of which is under the surface of the water : The ship sank after hitting an --- in the North Atlantic.

iceberg

12

a large mass of ice which moves slowly down a mountain valley : The high mountain --- of South America and Asia are melting at an alarming rate.

glacier

13

frozen balls of ice which fall like rain from the sky : --- as big as marbles flattened the crops.

hailstones

14

a thin coating of white powder-like ice that forms on the ground and plants, or the weather conditions in which this powder appears : There was --- on the ground.

frost

15

a long thin pointed piece of ice that hangs from a roof or other surface : There were --- hanging down from the side of the house.

icicle

16

an area of ice that is very difficult to see on a road : Driving conditions are dangerous, with --- in many areas.

black ice

17

to remove something from a surface using the edge of a knife, a stick etc : --- the carrots and slice them thinly.

scrape

18

تراشیدن یه چیزی از روی یه چیز دیگه

scrape something off/into etc something.

19

to make a noise by rubbing roughly against a surface. Chairs --- loudly as they stood up. --- (something) on/down/against something. He opened the gate quietly, trying not to let it --- on the gravel.

scraped

20

عملی dealing with problems in a sensible practical way instead of strictly following a set of ideas. Williams took a more --- approach to management problems.

pragmatic adjective

21

سخن something you say. Politicians are judged by their public ---. 2 [ uncountable ] the action of saying something

utterance noun formal

22

1 an opinion that is stated publicly SYN stand. --- on What is your --- on environmental issues? --- against a strong --- against abortion. take/adopt a ---. The President has adopted a tough --- on terrorism.

stance noun

23

the opinions and feelings that you usually have about something, especially when this is shown in your behaviour : As soon as they found out I was a doctor, their whole --- changed. --- to/towards. The people have a very positive --- to life.

attitude noun

24

an --- situation is one that is unusual or amusing because something strange happens, or the opposite of what is expected happens or is true. Your car was stolen at the police station! How ---! It's --- that her husband smoked for thirty years, and yet she's the one who died of lung cancer.

ironic adjective

25

using words that are the opposite of what you really mean, often in a joking way. --- comments. When I told Lucy I loved her book, she thought I was being ---. → sarcastic

ironic

26

saying things that are the opposite of what you mean, in order to make an unkind joke or to show that you are annoyed : Was she being ---? --- remark/comment/question. He can't help making --- comments. --- manner/smile/laugh etc. 'I thought so,' she said with a --- smile.

sarcastic adjective

27

گلچین کردن a short piece taken from a book, poem, piece of music etc SYN extract.--- of/from. An --- of the speech appeared in the Sunday paper.

excerpt noun [ countable ]

28

[ usually before noun ] of a good enough standard or quality. a --- salary. Don't you have a --- jacket?. a house with a --- -sized yard. Their in-flight magazine is halfway --- (= quite good ) .

decent adjective

29

following moral standards that are acceptable to society --- citizens/people/folk etc. The majority of residents here are --- citizens. a --- burial. Paul visited the local bars more frequently than was --- for a senior lecturer. The chairman did the --- thing (= did what people thought he ought to ) and resigned.

decent

30

[ usually before noun ] treating people in a fair and kind way : I decided her father was a --- guy after all. It was --- of you to show up today.

decent