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Flashcards in Free Will & Determinism Deck (43)
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1
Q

P. F. Strawson on moral responsibility and determinism and its objection

A

holding someone morally responsible is to have a morally reactive attitude towards their actions - these attitudes are the basis for our practices of moral responsibility
but, this does not show that we have moral responsibility, but rather the illusion of it

2
Q

what is the idea about values from Nietzsche as revived by strawson?

A

you do not choose the values with which you make your choice

3
Q

Locke on free will quote

A

Liberty is defined as “the power to act or not act according as the mind desires”

4
Q

what is the consequence argument

A
  1. no one has power over the facts of the past and laws of nature
  2. no one can change causal necessity between facts of the past, laws of nature, and facts of the future
  3. therefore no one has power over the facts of the future
5
Q

Principle of alternate possibilities

A

an action is free only if the agent could have done otherwise

6
Q

Eddie Nahmias

A

Consciousness means that we do have free will

7
Q

Reductionism

A

The view that all parts of the world, and all our experience, can be traced back or reduced down, to one singular thing.

8
Q

what are the 3 main criticisms to home’s compatibilism?

A
  1. Moritz Schlick - credits hum with being clear that morality is interested in freedom of conduct, not freedom of will
  2. Is constant conjuncture of motive and action justifiable?
    a. what if undetected difference in causes is hormonal, not psychological?
    b. our will is determined by causes prior to us, why not attribute responsibility to them?
    use strawson here
  3. Compulsive behaviour - stems from our will
  4. Nietzche and strawson on values
9
Q

summarise Charles Taylor’s position on moral responsibility

A

argues that a person can raise the question, ‘do I really want to be the person I am now?’ and hence the fact that we, no matter our predetermined reasons, still resolve to be a certain way - this is where we are responsible for ourselves

10
Q

Soft determinism

A

Freedom means absence of constraints

11
Q

Greg Caruso

A

Punishment can still be justified in spite of determinism: public health quarantine model

13
Q

Kane’s definition of free will

A

‘The power to be the ultimate creator and sustainer of one’s own ends or purposes’

14
Q

Summarise ted honderich’s position

A

Who we are as agents is entirely caused by the causal pathways in our brains; there cannot be something above the brain

15
Q

Chriticisms of Calvinism

A

Why would Christ suffer punishment for the sins of those god chose not to save?

If god predestined everything, the he actively chose to eternally condemn some

16
Q

Criticisms of Kane

A

Clarke - Kane’s depiction is actually a form of compatibilism

Strawson- free will is impossible because no one is ever ultimately responsible; we cannot be causa Sui

Dennet- Kane believes freedom is based on rare exceptional events, but there is no guarantee that such an event will occur

Smilansky- whether this effort to change character will bear fruit or not is arbitrary and not under the agent’s control

16
Q

Frankfurt’s compatibilism

A

Rejects “could have done otherwise” being a condition for free will

17
Q

Al Mele

A

Whether determinism or randomness, either way we are not free

18
Q

TULIP

A
Total depravity
Unconditional election 
Limited atonement
Irresistable grace
Perseverance of the saints
18
Q

Baron D’holbach On Determinism

A

‘Everything, is the inevitable result of what came before. Including everything that we do’

20
Q

Significance of Oedipus

A

There is no escaping fate: our fates are determined so we aren’t free.

21
Q

Leibniz’ compatibilism

A

Incline without necessitating - prior causes to not determine action or choice, they merely incline without necessitating

21
Q

Define determinism

A

The view that given the state of the universe and the laws of nature, only one unique state of the universe can occur next

Assumed: 1. Universal causation 2. Causal necessity

22
Q

Ted Honderich On Hard Determinism

A

‘All our choices, decisions… and our actions are no more than effects of other equally necessitated events’

23
Q

Define Hard Determinism

A

The belief that all events are caused by past events such that nothing other than what does occur could occur. Freedom is an illusion.

25
Q

Define libertarianism

A

The belief that some actions are freely chosen

25
Q

Agent causation

A

An agent can start a whole chain of causality that wasn’t caused by anything else

27
Q

bruce waller on chance and morality

A

two people have the exact same past, one lies and the other tells the truth, what are our grounds for distinguishing between them and praising one whilst blaming the other?

28
Q

Schrodinger’s equation

A

Shows the sub atomic states change in a perfectly regular manner

29
Q

Summarise Harris’ position

A

We don’t have conscious authorship over our thoughts.

There is no way of combining chance and determinism to make sense of free will

30
Q

case study for Determinism

A

In 2000 a 40 year old man was arrested for molesting his 8 year old step daughter.

Brain scan revealed a tumour in his orbital cortex known to control sexual impulse. When tumour was removed, so was his sexual impulses.

Was paedophilia inducing brain tumour determined by a medical condition? Or did he freely act?

31
Q

Frankfurt cases

A

Harry frankfurt argues that an agent could be morally responsible for what he does even when he couldn’t have done otherwise. Can you be responsible without being able to do otherwise?

32
Q

Patricia churchland

A

Contemporary Canadian-American philosopher argues that as social animals we can’t help but hold people morally responsible and assigning blame or praise to their actions. We should ask how much control we have in order to understand how much responsibility we have.

33
Q

Buridan’s Ass?

A

A starving donkey between 2 equally big and equally delicious bales of hay starves to death

34
Q

Leibniz’s law?

A

Nihil Sine Ratione (nothing is without reason)

Ex Nihilo Nihil Fit (nothing comes out of nothing)

35
Q

Schopenhauer Soft Determinism quote

A

‘You can do what you will but you cannot will what you will’

36
Q

What do libertarians respond to theological determinism?

A

God’s foreknowledge is acausal

37
Q

Where is Kane’s emphasis on?

A

Works on non-deterministic quantum processes

38
Q

The Copenhagen Interpretation

A

Refers to quantum mechanical Indeterminism as the basis for free will.

The existence of an observer is required to collapse the wave-function of quantum mechanical probabilities into ‘hard’ reality’.

The CI is denied by other interpretations like the deterministic ‘Many Worlds view’

38
Q

Hawking on Free Will

A

He says that chaos theory (the fact that Deterministic events can be entirely unpredictable) gives us free will

39
Q

The ‘locus classicus’ position of libertarianism

A

Mind / brain dualism: a Non- material mind exists alongside the physical brain and acts as the causal agent for thought & decision making in a way that overrides the physical causality entailed by the laws of physics

40
Q

Hume’s quote on soft Determinism

A

‘By liberty… we can only mean a power of acting or not acting, according to the determinations of the will; that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to move, we also may’

41
Q

Ted Honderich quote on hard Determinism (subject to fallacy of composition)

A

‘It would be a strange machine whose elements were all causal but whose large substructures were not’

  • Honderich rejects the idea that indeterminism at a quantum level can travel up the causal chain, but if he’s using this argument surely Indeterminism can be attributed to the whole too?
42
Q

Laplace’s demon

A

The first published articulation of causal determinism by Laplace, 1814.

If the demon knows the precise location and momentum of every atom in the universe, their past and future values for any given time are entailed and can be calculated using the laws of classical mechanics.