fsot american history Flashcards Preview

FSOT > fsot american history > Flashcards

Flashcards in fsot american history Deck (94):

Describe the Federal Reserve System.

The central bank of the United States; incorporates 12 Federal Reserve branch banks and all national banks and state-charted commercial banks and some trust companies. It was was created in 1913 by the Federal Reserve Act.


Describe the Federal Reserve System.

Supervise and regulate banks, Implement monetary policy by open market operations, setting the discount rate, and setting the reserve ratio, Maintain a strong payments system, Control the amount of currency that is made and destroyed on a day to day basis (in conjunction with the Mint and Bureau of Engraving and Printing). Other tasks include: Economic research, Economic education, Community outreach


What are Implied powers, in relation to the U.S. Constitution?

Powers not specifically given to the Federal Government of the United States. Implied powers are derived from an enumerated power and the Necessary-and-proper clause, which can also be recognized as the elastic clause. These powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be "reasonably" implied through the exercise of delegated powers. The implied powers of the Federal government was an idea formed after Thomas Jefferson decided to go ahead with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, although the Constitution did not explicitly give him the power to do so. Later, the implied powers played an important role in the court decision of McCulloch v. Maryland, with the Second Bank of the United States using the idea to argue the constitutionality of Congress's creating it in 1816.


What group controlled Mexico when Spanish settlers arrived in the 16th century?

The Aztecs.


What happened at Fort Sumter?

In 1861 Confederates attacked the fort, which led to its surrender and was the opening engagement of the Civil War. It is located in Charleston, South Carolina.


What is a graduated income tax?

An income tax that takes proportionately more from higher wage earners.


What is a holding company?

Business owning a majority of stock in member companies and therefore able to dictate common policy. Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway is one of the largest publicly traded holding companies; it owns numerous insurance companies, manufacturing businesses, retailers, and other companies.


What is the definition of Fascism?

Form of government characterized by militarism, extreme nationalism, and a oneparty dictatorship.


What is the elastic clause?

Part of Article I of the Constitution that gives Congress authority to pass laws in addition to those specified.


What is the difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation?

De facto segregation is segregation of races that actually exists, though not by law. De jure segregation is segregation of races by law.


What is the importance of Marbury v. Madison?

(1803) landmark case in United States law wherein the U.S. Supreme Court established judicial review as a legitimate power of the Court on constitutional grounds.


What is the importance of Marbury v. Madison?

(1803) landmark case in United States law wherein the U.S. Supreme Court established judicial review as a legitimate power of the Court on constitutional grounds.


What is the signifigance of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

In 1854, it established that the people of a territory should decide whether slavery would be allowed there. Opponents saw it as the triumph of the Slave Power and formed the Republican Party to defeat it. The Act was a key step on the way to the American Civil War.


What killed more people: the black plague or colonization of america?

Colonization of America.


What political party did Alexander Hamilton start?

The Federalist party in 1792, which advocated strong national government. It was opposed by Thomas Jefferson & James Madison's Republican party.


What was Bleeding Kansas?

Sometimes referred to as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving abolitionists (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1856. It led up to the civil war.


What was Jamestown?

The first successful English colony, established in 1607 on a small river near Chesapeake Bay. It was headed by John Smith, who befriended Pocahontas. It was all male.


What was the Age of Enlightenment?

It was 18th century european philosophical movement (part of Age of Reason). Leading thinkers believed that the future could be shaped and directed by reason. They believed that society was based on natural laws. Thus, these thinkers challenged the power of absolute monarchs or kings and the idea that a monarch or king ruled by divine right.


What was the Agricultural Revolution?

Period from the early 1700s until the mid-1800s during which machines and improved technology replaced manual labor and traditional methods in farming.


What was the Alien Registration Act?

AKA - Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to conspire to overthrow the government. It also required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government. The Act is best known for its use against political organizations and figures, mostly on the left. A series of United States Supreme Court decisions in 1957 threw out numerous convictions under the Smith Act as unconstitutional.


What was the Battle of the Little Bighorn?

(1876): Also called Custer's Last Stand, it was the most famous incident of the Indian Wars. Cheyenne and Sioux indians killed Custer and all of his men.


What was the Berlin Airlift?

Airlift by U.S. in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of West Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin.


What was the Boston Massacre?

March 5, 1770, a brawl between American colonists and British soldiers where the colonists hit the British soldiers with snowballs and the British soldiers shot into the crowd killing 5 of the colonists.


What was the Declaration of Independance?

The document recording the announcement of the second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.


What was the Emancipation Proclimation?

Declaration issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in those territories still rebelling against the Union.


What was the Embargo Act of 1807?

It prohibited all international exports from American ports. It represented President Thomas Jefferson's response to the United Kingdom's Orders in Council (1807) and France's Continental System, which were severely hurting America's merchant marines. Although it was designed to force the British and French to change their commercial systems, neither country did, and the Act was repealed in 1808. The Act failed to prevent the War of 1812.


What was the Era of Good Feelings?

Period from 1815–1821 that followed the War of 1812 where the last Federalist candidate was defeated and the issues of slavery were emerging as a result of the Missouri Compromise. James Monroe defeated the last Federalist candidate in 1816, and won unopposed in 1820.


What was the espionage act of 1917?

Passed by Congress in 1917 after the United States entered World War I; set a $10,000 fine and 20 years’ imprisonment for interfering with the recruiting of troops or the disclosure of information dealing with national defense.


What was the French and Indian War?

The war that raged in North America through the late 1750's and early 1760's was but one part of the larger struggle between England and France for dominance in world trade and naval power. The British victory in that struggle, known in Europe as the Seven Years' War , ended the long struggle among the three principal powers in northeastern North America: The English, the French, and the Iroquois Confederacy, it confirmed England's commercial supremacy and cemented its control of the settled regions of North America.


What was the Fugitive Slave Law?

In 1850, the law stated that in the future any federal marshal who did not arrest an alleged runaway slave could be fined $1000, people suspected of being a runaway slave could be arrested without warrant and turned over to a claimant on nothing more than his or her sworn testimony of ownership, and any person aiding a runaway slave by providing shelter, food or any other form of assistance was liable to six months’ imprisonment and a $1000 fine.


What was the Gilded Age?

The Gilded Age (c.1876–1914) was a period of intense economic development and wealth transfer in the United States. Following the generation of the American Civil War and Reconstruction of the South, this period corresponded with the Second Industrial Revolution and the greatest economic, territorial, industrial, and population expansion in American history. The explosion of commerce and heavy industry, supported by mercantilist economic policies and federal railway subsidies, the innovation of new techniques in steel production and the use of electric power, and the continued development of the American West catalyzed dramatic social changes, created a number of immensely wealthy businessmen, the "Robber Barons", and also galvanized the American Labor Movement.


What was the Good Neighbor Policy?

The "Good Neighbor" policy was the policy of the United States Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in relation to Latin America during 1933-45, when the active U.S. intervention of previous decades was moderated in pursuit of hemispheric solidarity against external threats.


What was the Great Compromise of 1787?

Created a bicameral legislature in the Constitution; it established that representation in one house was to be proportional to population in one house and equal among states in the other.


What was the Haymarket Riot?

Began in 1886 with a riot at the McCormick Harvester plant in Chicago where unionized workers were striking for shorter work days and then a few days later moved to Haymarket Square where a protest meeting was called to denounce the events of the previous day; resulted in several deaths.


What was the importance of Dred Scott v. Sanford?

In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled that even free Africans could not sue in a federal court, since they were not citizens of the United States and that slaves brought into free territory remained slaves because they were a form of property.


What was the Indian Removal Act?

(1830): A law passed by Congress in order to facilitate the relocation of American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands further west. It authorized President Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living within the boundaries of existing U.S. states. Resulted in the forcable movement of tens of thousands of native americans. The most well known was the Trail of Tears (1838), when 4,000 cherokees were killed during their forced relocation.


What was the Magna Carta?

Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility. It was the first step in a long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law.


What was The Roosevelt Corollary?

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (from 1901 to 1909) was a substantial alteration (called an "amendment") of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The U.S. would now consider Latin America as an agency for expanding U.S. commercial interests in the region, along with its original stated purpose of keeping European hegemony from the hemisphere. In essence, Roosevelt's Monroe Doctrine would be the basis for a use of economic and military hegemony to make the U.S. the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere. The new doctrine was a frank statement that the U.S. was willing to seek leverage over Latin American governments by acting as an international police power in the region. Described as a policy of speaking softly but carrying a big stick, the Roosevelt announcement launched an era of the "big stick."


What was the U.S. Homestead Act?

Law passed in 1862 that offered certain settlers 160 acres of land if they built a house and farmed for five years.


What were the "Five Civilized Tribes"

The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes, all located in the southeast. They were considered civilized by whites because they followed many of their practices, such as slavery.


What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?

With war looming against a major power, France, Federalists in Congress in 1798 passed the laws to protect national security. These 4 laws limited freedom of speech, made it possible to kick out foreign nationals, and changed citizenship to be gained after 14 years of residence, instead of 5. Never tested in court, but is generally accepted to be unconstitutional.


What were the Allied Powers?

The countries of Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France that formed an alliance during World War II.


What were the Articles of Confederation?

The compact that was first made by the original thirteen states of the United States and was adopted March 1, 1781, and remained the supreme law until March 1789.


What were the Axis Powers?

A group of countries that opposed the Allied Powers in World War II, including Germany, Italy, and Japan as well as Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia.


What were the Camp David Accords?

Started by President Carter in 1978, a framework for peace negotiations concerning Israeli-occupied Arab territories—Jordan’s West Bank, and Egypt’s Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula.


What were the intolerable acts?

A series of laws passed by the British in 1774 in an attempt to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party; also called Coercive Acts or Punitive Acts.


What year did the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty take effect? What countries had nucs then and now?

1970. U.S., U.K., China, Russia, France had them then. Today Israel, Pakistan, and India do also.


When did the Berlin Wall exist?

1961 to 1989.


When did the industrial revolution begin?

In Britain in the mid 1700s. It used steam from coal to power machines.


When did the KKK form?

1866 in Tennessee.


When was the Louisiana Purchase?

Purchased under Jefferson from France in 1803 for $15 million; extends from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. If adjusted for the relative share of GDP, this amount would equal approximately $390 billion in 2003. The land included in the Purchase comprises 22.3 percent of the territory of the modern United States.


When was work on the Manhattan Project finished?

1945 the bomb was tested in New Mexico.


When were the Lincoln - Douglas Debates?

These debates were held between Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln held during the 1858 campaign for a U.S. Senate seat from Illinois. Lincoln opposed extending slavery to new western states.


Where did the pilgrims settle?

In Massachussetts, established Plymouth in 1620.


Which side did native americans fight on in the American Revolution?

Both, but mainly supported the British.


Who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony?

The puritans in 1629.


Who is Alan Greenspan?

Was chairman of the Fed from 1987-2006. His replacement is Ben Bernanke.


Who was Charles Evans Hughes?

Chief justice of U.S. nominated in 1930 by Herbert Hoover. Under him the Supreme Court continued to enforce a Federal laissez-faire approach, overturning many of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs, which were designed to combat the Great Depression, by 5–4 margins. Most notably, the National Industrial Recovery Act was overturned in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935), and the Agricultural Adjustment Act was struck down in United States v. Butler (1936). In response, President Roosevelt proposed the Judiciary Reorganization (court packing) Bill.


Who was Earl Warren ?

US supreme court chief justice nominated in 1953 by Dwight D. Eisenhower. The first important case of Warren's tenure was Brown v. Board of Education (1954), in which the Court unanimously declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional, effectively reversing the precedent set earlier in Plessy v. Ferguson and other cases.


Who was Edward Douglass White?

US supreme court justice nominated in 1910 by William Howard Taft. In the early twentieth century, the Supreme Court established that the Fourteenth Amendment protected the "liberty of contract." On the grounds of the Fourteenth Amendment and other provisions of the Constitution, it controversially overturned many state and federal laws designed to protect employees. The first important decision of the era was Lochner v. New York (1905), in which the Court overturned a New York law limiting the number of hours bakers could work each week. In Adair v. United States (1908), the Court overruled a federal law which forbade "yellow dog contracts" (contracts that prohibited workers from joining unions). Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) involved a decision that a District of Columbia minimum wage law was unconstitutional. White was generally seen as one of the more conservative members of the court.


Who was Frederick Douglass?

1818-1895 an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. Among the most prominent African Americans of his time, and one of the most influential lecturers and authors in American history. Most well-known work is his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Later became the publisher of a series of newspapers.


Who was Frederick Moore Vinson?

Supreme court chief justice nominated in 1946 by Harry S. Truman. On racial segration, he wrote that states practicing the separate but equal doctrine must provide facilities that were truly equal, in Sweatt v. Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents. The case of Brown v. Board of Education was before the Court at the time of his death. Vinson, not wanting a 5-4 decision, had ordered a second hearing of the case. He died before the case could be reheard, at which time Earl Warren was appointed to the Court and the case was heard again.


Who was Harlan Stone?

Supreme court chief justice nominated in 1941 by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Liberal justice who supported new deal programs.


Who was Harriet Beecher Stowe?

1811-1896 an abolitionist, and writer of more than 10 books, the most famous being Uncle Tom's Cabin which describes life in slavery.


Who was Henry David Thoreau?

1817-1862 an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is famous for Walden, on simple living amongst nature, and Civil Disobedience, on resistance to civil government and among 22 other books that Thoreau published. He was a lifelong abolitionist.


Who was Henry Wadsworth Longfellow?

1807-1882 an American poet who wrote many works that are still famous today, including The Song of Hiawatha, Paul Revere's Ride and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieri's Inferno. His poetry is based on familiar and easily understood themes with simple, clear, and flowing language. His poetry created an audience in America and contributed to creating American mythology.


Who was Henry Ward Beecher?

1813-1887 Theologically liberal American Congregationalist clergyman and reformer, and author. One of his elder sisters was Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. An advocate of women's suffrage and for temperance, and a foe of slavery, he bought guns to support Bleeding Kansas.


Who was Herman Melville?

1819-1891 an American novelist, essayist, and poet. During his lifetime his early novels were popular, but his popularity declined later in his life. By the time of his death he had nearly been forgotten, but his masterpiece, Moby-Dick, was "rediscovered" in the 20th century. His short story "Bartleby the Scrivener" is among his most important pieces because It has been considered a precursor to Existentialist and Absurdist literature.


Who was Horace Greeley?

1811-1872 an American newspaper editor, reformer and politician. His New York Tribune was the most influential newspaper of the period 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties. “Go West, Young Man!” he advised ambitious youth. Champion of the workingman, he attacked monopolies of all sorts and rejected land grants to railroads. Fought the extension of slavery.


Who was Jackson Pollack?

1912-1956 An influential American artist and a major force in the abstract expressionism movement. Pollock's style changed dramatically beginning in 1947. He began painting with his (usually large) canvases placed on the floor, and developed what was called his "drip" technique, or the more preferred term, his "pour" technique. He used his brushes as sticks to drip paint, and the brush never touched the canvas. This was an origination of action painting. In this process he moved away from figurative art, and changed the Western tradition of using an easel and brush, as well as moving away from use only of the hand and wrist - as he used his whole body to paint. Pollock was dubbed "Jack the Dripper" due to his painting style. Died of car crash in 1956.


Who was James Whistler?

1834-1903 American-born, British based painter and etcher. Most famous work is Whistler's Mother. Whistler's belief that art should concentrate on the arrangement of colors led many critics to see his work as a precursor of abstract art.


Who was John Brown?

1800-1859 One of the first white abolitionists to advocate, and to practice, guerrilla warfare as a means to the abolition of slavery. He first gained national notoriety when he led a company of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis, in which he fought two major battles with pro-slavery terrorists, directed the Pottawatomie massacre on the night of May 24th, 1856, and liberated 11 slaves from slaveholders in neighboring Missouri. Brown's most famous deed was the raid he led on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (in modern-day West Virginia). Brown's subsequent capture by federal forces commanded by Robert E. Lee, his trial, and his execution by hanging are generally considered an important part of the origins of the American Civil War.


Who was John Jay?

1745 – 1829 was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat and jurist. Considered one of the "founding fathers" of the United States, Jay served in the Continental Congress, and was elected President of that body in 1778. During and after the difficult and dangerous years of the American Revolutionary War, he was an ambassador to Spain and France, helping to fashion American foreign policy and to secure favorable peace terms from the British and French. He cowrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Jay also served on the U.S. Supreme Court as the first, as well as the youngest, Chief Justice of the United States from 1789 to 1794. Perhaps the most controversial of the Supreme Court's early decisions under him was Chisholm v. Georgia, in which it held that the federal judiciary could hear lawsuits against states. Soon thereafter, responding to the concerns of several states, Congress proposed the Eleventh Amendment, which granted states immunity from certain types of lawsuits in federal courts. The Amendment was ratified in 1795.


Who was John Marshall?

1755-1835 Supreme court chief justice nominated by John Adams in 1801. In the landmark case Marbury v. Madison (1803), Marshall held that the Supreme Court could overturn a law passed by Congress if it violated the Constitution, legally cementing the power of judicial review. The Marshall Court also made several important decisions relating to federalism. Marshall took a broad view of the powers of the federal government—in particular, the interstate commerce clause and the necessary and proper clause. For instance, in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the Court ruled that the interstate commerce clause and other clauses permitted Congress to create a national bank, even though the power to create a bank is not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution. Similarly, in Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Court found that the interstate commerce clause permitted Congress to regulate interstate navigation. The Marshall Court also made several decisions restraining the actions of state governments. The notion that the Supreme Court could consider appeals from state courts was established in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816) and Cohens v. Virginia (1821). In several decisions, the Marshall Court confirmed the supremacy of federal laws over state laws. For example, in the aforementioned decision in McCulloch v. Maryland, the Court held that a state could not tax an agency of the federal government. At the same time, however, the Marshall Court held in the landmark case Barron v. Baltimore (1833) that the Bill of Rights restricted the federal government alone, and did not apply to the states. Nonetheless, the Supreme Court would in later years hold that the Fourteenth Amendment had the effect of applying the Bill of Rights to the states.


Who was John Singer Sargent?

1856-1925 A painter known for his portraits. He is usually thought of as an American artist, although he lived most of his life in Europe. Sargent's portraits subtly capture the individuality and personality of the sitters. In a time when the art world was focused on impressionism and emphasizing artistic individuality, Sargent emphasized his own form of Realism and regularly did commissioned portraits of the wealthy.


Who was Mark Rothko?

1903-1970 Russian-born American Jewish painter who is often classified as an abstract expressionist. Among the founders of the New York School, his work concentrated on basic emotions, often filling the canvas with very few, but intense colours, using little immediately-apparent detail. He killed himself.


Who was Mary Cassat?

Lived 1844-1926. American impressionist artist who worked in Paris. After experimenting with different printmaking techniques like etching and aquatint she finally discovered drypoint combined with aquatint as her favorite intaglio process. Between 1889 and 1890 she created a set of twelve wonderful drypoints. From 1890 to 1891 she made a series of ten color prints, known as The Ten. This series is considered as a landmark in Impressionist printmaking.


Who was Melville Fuller?

Chief justice of supreme court nominated by Grover Cleveland in 1888. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Court determined that the equal protection clause did not prohibit racial segregation in public facilities, as long as the facilities were equal (giving rise to the famous term "separate but equal"). He declared the income tax law unconstitutional. In Western Union Telegraph Company vs. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania he ruled that states could not tax interstate telegraph messages. He struck a blow against government antitrust legislation with the 1895 case United States v. E. C. Knight Co.. In Fuller's majority decision, he found that the refining of sugar by a company within the boundries of one state could not be held to be in restraint of interstate commerce under the terms of the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act, regardless of the product's final market share.


Who was Morrison Waite?

1816-1888 Supreme court chief justice nominated by Ulysses S. Grant in 1874. In the Civil Rights Cases (1883), the Court under Chief Justice Morrison Waite held that Congress could not prohibit racial discrimination by private individuals (as opposed to governments) on the grounds of the Fourteenth Amendment.


Who was Nathaniel Hawthorne?

1804-1864 a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. He is seen as a key figure in the development of American literature. Hawthorne is best-known today for his many short stories and The Scarlet Letter. Much of Hawthorne's work is set in colonial New England, and many of his short stories have been read as moral allegories influenced by his Puritan background.


Who was Oliver Ellsworth?

1745–1807 an American lawyer and politician, was a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, and third Chief Justice of the United States.


Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?

1803-1882 a famous American essayist and one of America's most influential thinkers and writers. First expressed the philosophy of Transcendentalism in his essay Nature. Emerson made a living as a popular lecturer in New England and the rest of the country outside of the south.


Who was Robert Maplethorpe?

1946-1989 an American photographer, famous for his large-scale, highly-stylized black & white portraits, photos of flowers and male nudes. The frank, erotic nature of some of the work of his middle period triggered a more general controversy about the public funding of artworks. His most common themes were portraits of (now) famous people (including Andy Warhol, Deborah Harry, Richard Gere, and Patti Smith)


Who was Roger B. Taney?

1777 - 1864 Supreme court chief justice nominated in 1836 by Andrew Jackson. At a time when sectional tensions between the North and South were high, many of the Supreme Court's decisions—particularly those relating to slavery—met with controversy and contention. Most controversial was the Taney Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857). Dred Scott, a slave from Missouri, sued for his freedom on the grounds that his master had taken him into Illinois and the territory of Wisconsin, both of which prohibited slavery, for extended periods of time. Taney, however, ruled that members of the African race, "beings of an inferior order," were not and could never become citizens of the United States. Consequently, he ruled that Scott therefore had no standing to file the lawsuit. Moreover, he held that the Missouri Compromise, under which Congress prohibited slavery in certain territories that formed part of the Louisiana Purchase, was unconstitutional. The controversial decision met with vigorous opposition from abolitionists, and contributed to the tensions that led to the Civil War during the next decade.


Who was Salmon P. Chase?

1808-1873 Lincoln appointed him to be Chief Justice in 1864. Chase had strong anti-slavery credentials and had previously served Lincoln as Secretary of the Treasury. His post-Civil War tenure featured several key decisions affirming the indestructibility of the Union. Chase continued to serve as Chief Justice until his death in 1873. Many cases that came before the Court in the post–Civil War era involved interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment.


Who was Stephen A. Douglas?

American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860. Lost to Lincoln. Was an expansonist. As senator, supported the Missouri Compromise.


Who was Warren Burger?

US supreme court justice nominated in 1969 by Richard Nixon. The Burger Court is best remembered for its ruling in Roe v. Wade (1973), which held that there is a constitutionally protected right to have an abortion in some circumstances. The Court also made important decisions relating to the First Amendment. In Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), it established the "Lemon test" for determining if legislation violates the establishment clause. Similarly, it established the "Miller test" for laws banning obscenity in Miller v. California (1973). In United States v. Nixon the court ruled that the courts have the final voice in determining constitutional questions and that no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law.


Who was William Howard Taft?

US president 1909-1913 and supreme court justice nominated by Warren G. Harding in 1921. He remains the only person in the history of the United States to have led both the Executive and Judicial branches of the United States government, and is also the last President to hold a public office after his Presidential term ended. Was a Republican. Among other things, his administration is characterized for trust-busting, strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission, expanding the civil service, and establishing a better postal system. Two constitutional amendments were passed during his term: the 16th Amendment, authorizing a federal income tax, and the 17th Amendment, mandating the direct popular election of senators instead of by the state legislatures. New Mexico and Airzona became states under him in 1912. As chief justice, made a landmark ruling in Gitlow v. New York, establishing the doctrine of incorporation, under which provisions of the Bill of Rights were deemed to restrict the states.


Who was William Lloyd Garrison?

1805-1879 A prominent white abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. After the abolition of slavery, he continued working on other reform movements, especially temperance and women's suffrage.


Who was William Rehnquist?

US supreme court justice nominated in 1972 by Richard Nixon and elevated in 1986 by Ronald Regan to chief justice. The Rehnquist Court generally took a limited view of Congress's powers under the commerce clause, as exemplified by United States v. Lopez (1995). The Court made numerous controversial decisions, including Texas v. Johnson (1989), which declared that flag burning was a form of speech protected by the First Amendment; Lee v. Weisman (1992), which declared officially-sanctioned, student-led school prayers unconstitutional; Stenberg v. Carhart (2000), which voided laws prohibiting late-term abortions; and Lawrence v. Texas (2003), which struck down laws prohibiting sodomy. (Some commentators see these decisions as part of the "culture wars.") Another controversial decision of the Rehnquist court in 2003 was Gratz v. Bollinger which upheld affirmative action. Perhaps the most controversial decision made by the Court came in Bush v. Gore (2000), which ended election recounts in Florida following the presidential election of 2000, allowing George W. Bush to become the forty-third U.S. President.


Who was Winslow Homer?

1836-1910 an American landscape painter. By 1857 his freelance illustration career was underway and he contributed to magazines such as Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly. His works, mostly engravings, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, and lively figure groupings.


Who were the "Buffalo Soldiers"?

Members of one of the African American regiments within the U.S. Army after the Civil War, serving primarily in the Indian wars of the late 1860s.


Who were the Democratic-Republicans?

Early political party that was unopposed in national politics through the Era of Good Feeling; split in 1828. They advocated states powers and strict constructionism of the constitution. Opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist party.


Who were the Incas?

An empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. Over that period, the Inca used conquest and peaceful assimilation to incorporate in their empire a large portion of western South America, centred on the Andean mountain ranges, and including parts of Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. The Spanish conquered them in 1533.