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Flashcards in Foreign Policy Deck (179):
1

2 factors that make up congressman's stance on trade

-constituency-party

2

3 concepts of National Interest

-Power and National Security-Domestic Impact Conception-Ideological Principle Conception

3

4 Models of Decision Making

Rational Actor Model Organizational Process Model Bureaucratic Politics Model Radical (Military Industrial) Model

4

4 Options towards Soviet Russia

-roll back communism (aggression) -negotiations of many disagreements (diplomacy) -appeasement -containment/isolation of USSR

5

5 Questions for Opinion Maker

-How different is mass opinion and lead opinion? -How interested is the public? -How knowledgeable is the public? -What do they believe? -Are our opinions volatile?

6

5 Sequential Steps of Rational Actor

1. definition of situation 2. identification of goals 3. identification of options 4. cost benefit analysis

7

6 Tactics to weaken states

-prying away its allies -weakening hold on sphere of influence -stopping trade -removing hostile gov't -waging preemptive war -fighting wars to prevent status quo disturbance

8

7 Sins of US foreign policy

EEIIUA Emphasis on Military; Executive Branch Dominance, Ignorance, Isolationsm, Unilateralism, Arrogance

9

ABC Democrats

The promotion by the US of any government opposed to communism regardless of human rights violations

10

Adams-Onis Treaty 1819

with Spain, transferring Florida, extended the U.S. to present boundaries in southeast.

11

Alaska purchase 1867

ended Russian territorial presence and completed U.S. expansion on North American mainland.

12

Allies and Germany 1918

accepted Wilson's 14 points as basis for just and lasting peace ending World War I.

13

Anti-terrorism

measures to protect and defend U.S. citizens and interests from terrorist attacks

14

Appeasement

policy where one state must see the world from another state's point of view

15

Balance of Power.

A concept that describes how states deal with the problems of national security in a context of shifting alliances and alignments.

16

Bretton Woods Conference

Conferences that established IMF, GATT, and WB

17

Bureaucratic Politics Model

bureaucracies argue from their stance; conglomerates come to their decisions from their organizational standing

18

Bush Doctrine

Preventive/Preemptive war against potential aggressors before they are capable of mounting attacks against the United States

19

Bush's stance on international trade

-for international trade b/c his main constituency is the service sector

20

Can US states create their own foreign policy?

Generally no. US treaties and federal law are said to preempt any state or local law that can be said to be in the area of foreign relations. There is some wiggle room here, however if the effect of the local statute or ordinance is minimal. Courts upheld south african apartheid legislation, wherein cities forced pension funds to divest themselves of any South African investments.

21

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

the government organization that oversees foreign intelligence-gathering and related classified activities

22

Cognitive dissidence

Ignoring or schewing information unfavorable to a person's opinion

23

Compellence

Persuading a country from doing something they wouldn't have done

24

Congenial International Environment/Interdependence

-Needs cooperative interational environments -US needs more free states

25

Congress powers in foreign Policy

Ratify treaties; confirm appointments; declare war; appropriate funds; oversee agencies; enact legislation

26

Containment?

Keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic, and military actions.

27

Counter terrorism

activities to stop terrorists from using fore and responding when they do

28

Covert Operations

undercover actions in which the prime mover country appears to have had no role

29

Critiques of Appeassment Theory

Detterents almost always cause War (Security theory)

30

Cuban Missile Crisis

"â€_Ä¢A new leader, Fidel Castro, came to power in Cuba and declared it a communist country. The US government cut off relations with Cuba in protest.

31

Department of Defense

the executive department charged with managing country's military personnel, equipment, and operations

32

Department of Homeland Security

executive department meant to provide a unifying force in the efforts of the government to prevent attacks on the United States and to respond to such attacks through law enforcement and emergency relief should they occur

33

Department of State

the executive department charged with managing foreign affairs

34

Deterrence

Preventing a country from doing what they might do

35

Diplomacy

the formal system of communication and negotiation between countries

36

Diplomatic Realism

What sub-ideology? -"There can be a slippage between the distribution of power and the perception of threat" -Revisionist are threatening, while status quo states are not

37

Director of National Intelligence

overseer and coordinator of the many agencies involved in production and dissemination of intelligence information in the U.S. government, as well as the president's main intelligence adviser

38

Does congress play a small or a large role in foreign affairs?

Large.

39

Dollar diplomacy?

"Dollar diplomacy" was the term used to describe the efforts of the United States — particularly under President William Howard Taft — to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power. The term is based on the earlier but related "gunboat diplomacy" — the demonstration or implied threat of superior military power to influence terms of trade and colonialism. The term was originally coined by critics of Philander C. Knox (Taft's secretary of State) who worked aggressively to extend American investments into less-developed regions (especially Latin America and China). At the time, during the largely isolationist-pacifist sentiments in the U.S. showed disapproval for the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, and those like Taft who sought to expand the United States' reach saw the use of money as a suitable compromise. The term has historically been used by Latin Americans as a characterization of their disapproval for the role of that the U.S. government — through its support for U.S. corporations — have played in using economic, diplomatic, and military power to invade their economies.

40

Domestic Impact Conception of NI

-what would improve lives of citizens -foreign policy relates to citizens of state

41

Dove

soft liners; avoid conflict and confrontation; passionate and considerate even if it means a deal of naivety

42

Earth Summit. 1992

Representatives of more than 175 nations, including the United States, met at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, which produced a treaty on climate change and was the largest international meeting on the environment ever convened.

43

Economic interest groups/ Issue groups/ identity groups

groups that promote public interest such as labor unions and industry groups, pro-life and pro-choice groups, and minority and women's rights groups

44

Economic Sanction

Punishments imposed on a nation as forms of protests

45

Embargo Act of 1807?

It prohibited all international exports from American ports. It represented President Thomas Jefferson's response to the United Kingdom's Orders in Council (1807) and France's Continental System, which were severely hurting America's merchant marines. Although it was designed to force the British and French to change their commercial systems, neither country did, and the Act was repealed in 1808. The Act failed to prevent the War of 1812.

46

End of Cold War 1989-91

As President George H.W. Bush stated a desire to integrate the Soviet Union into the community of nations, the Cold War ended when communist regimes collapsed across Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union disintegrated.

47

Executive agreement?

An executive agreement one of three mechanisms by which the United States enters into binding international agreements. They are considered treaties as the term is used under international law in that they bind both the United States and a foreign state. However, they are not considered treaties as the term is used under United States Constitutional law, because the United States Constitution's treaty procedure requires the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate, and these agreements are made solely by the President of the United States. An executive agreement can only be negotiated and entered into through the president's authority (1) in foreign policy, (2) as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, or (3) from a prior act of Congress. For instance, it is as commander-in-chief that the President negotiates and enters into status of forces agreements (SOFAs), which govern the treatment and disposition of U.S. forces stationed in other nations. An executive agreement, however, cannot go beyond the President's constitutional powers.

48

External Balancing

Concept of altering the distribution of power abroad in 3 ways: -manipulating the system of interstate alliances -tolerate spheres of influence -weaken adversary states

49

fast track" authority in the context of trade agreements?

In various acts, Congress delegated the authority to negotiate trade agreements (treaties) to the president. The Senate then can vote the agreement up or down. Not really provided for by the constitution, but is in practice. Other countries like dealing with only the president, rather than the entire US senate. See Article II Section 2, Clause 2.

50

Faults of Containment

-ideolical threat of communism -military threat of the red army -security dilemma

51

Finlandization

Policy that a power neutralizes its neighbors in an effort to protect itself

52

Foreign Aid

assistance given by one country to another in the form of grants loans

53

Foreign Policy Objectives?

Foreign Policy Objectives are the goals of a foreign policy, derived by relating a state's national interest to the international situation and the power available to the state.

54

Foreign Policy.

The official strategy of a state regarding how it will relate to other states and international organizations

55

Four P's

Peace, Power, Prosperity, Principles

56

Fourteen Points

Fourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I. President Woodrow Wilson announced the Fourteen Points to Congress in early 1918. They included public negotiations between nations, freedom of navigation, free trade, self-determination for several nations involved in the war, and the establishment of an association of nations to keep the peace. The association of nations" Wilson mentioned became the League of Nations. (See also Treaty of Versailles.)"

57

Free Trade

economic system by which countries exchange goods without imposing excessive tariffs and taxes

58

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

a series of agreements on international trading terms; now known as the World Trade Organization (WTO)

59

George Kennan?

He was a diplomat that advised Truman to contain communist expansion through something called the Long Telegram in 1946.

60

Good Neighbor Policy?

The "Good Neighbor" policy was the policy of the United States Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in relation to Latin America during 1933-45, when the active U.S. intervention of previous decades was moderated in pursuit of hemispheric solidarity against external threats.

61

Group Think

attributes decisions to the most intelligent; the way people interact often affect decision making and group decisions are often the best guided

62

Gulf War I 1990-91

In response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the United States built an international coalition to defend Saudi Arabia and, after United Nations approval, to eject Iraq from Kuwait through Operation Desert Storm.

63

Hard Power

Getting others to do what another says

64

Hawk

hardlingers; willingly pursue the national interest through confrontation; emphasis on power; smart; tough; crafty; cunning

65

Hegemonic Stability

theory that one state is able to create stability in the international system i.e. Pax Britanica

66

Hegemony

"the overbearing influence of one nation over another"

67

Human Rights

Exist and must be honored, and a violation of these harms US

68

Idealist Approach to Foreign Policy?

The Idealist approach assumes that a foreign policy based on morals, legal codes, and international norms is the most effective foreign policy because it encourages unity and cooperation among states rather than competition and conflict.

69

Ideological Principle Conception of NI

-policy is central to country's values -use democracy to promote justice, peace

70

If a US citizen breaks a law abroad, how is he punished?

US citizens are subject to the laws of whatever country they are in. The State department usually will not ask for a deportation.

71

Intelligence Community

agencies and bureaus that are responsible for obtaining and interpreting information for the government

72

Internal Balancing

Concept of increasing the state's power resources in 4 ways: -strengthening armed forces and bottomw of economy -focusing policy on resource heavy regions -creating economic policy designed to produce relative gains -using military force when it maintains the state's prestige or reputation

73

International Broadcasting Bureau?

The International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) is a United States Government federal agency that was created in 1994 to produce political radio and television broadcasts that are intended for audiences in foreign countries. The IBB replaces the former Bureau of Broadcasting.

74

International Monetary Funds (IMF)

economic institution that makes short term, relatively small loans to countries to help balance their currency flows

75

Internationalism

a foreign policy based on taking an active role in global affairs; the predominant foreign policy view in the U.S.

76

Iran-Contra affair

(i-RAN, i-RAHN, eye-RAN; KON-truh, KOHN-trah) A scandal in the administration of President Ronald Reagan, which came to light when it was revealed that in the mid-1980s the United States secretly arranged arms sales to Iran in return for promises of Iranian assistance in securing the release of Americans held hostage in Lebanon. Proceeds from the arms sales then were covertly and illegally funneled to the Contras, rebels fighting the Marxist Sandinista government in Nicaragua.

77

Isolationism

Foreign Policy Logic that: -delayed American hegemony -puts US last among developed countries in foreign aid -causes unilateralism -casued continentalism -from Monroe Doctrine

78

Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty (Camp David Accords) 1979

ended 30 years of conflict between the two countries and provided possible framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East.

79

Jay's Treaty 1795

required Great Britain to remove troops from northwestern frontier; Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opened mouth of Mississippi River to U.S. navigation.

80

John F. Kennedy

President in 1961 -Bay of Pigs

81

Joint Chief of Staffs

senior military officers from four branches of the U.S. armed forces

82

Kennedy's Conditions for Cuban takeover

-CIA trained rebels trained in Guatemala -Attacked with B-26 to give illusion that Cuban Air Force had revolted -US would land 1500 exiles -no US troops present -no US detectable presence -no US air support

83

Kennedy's Domestic Policy

-vigorous foreign policy-US space program -called for Cuban "freedom fighters"

84

Liberalism (also economic liberalism or radicalism)

US should seek expansion of liberty because states are better when: -trade is free -nations are governed democratically -human rights are honored -nations have self-determination

85

Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963

first major-power agreement regulating atomic weapons testing, banned explosions in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water.

86

Logic of Isolationism

"interdependence does not create vital interests requiring political and military involvement" "US has sufficient domestic efficiency" "US has no binding moral obligations abroad"

87

Logic of Liberalism

"Promoting liberty is a moral obligation" "Makes no specific assumptions about the power of the US beyond hte rather general assumption that is has the capability to increase liberty somehow"

88

Long Telegram?

The message written by George Kennan in 1946 to Truman advising him to contain Communist expansion. Told Truman that if the Soviets couldn't expand, their Communism would eventually fall apart, and that Communism could be beaten without going to war.

89

Louisiana Purchase 1803

removed foreign control of Mississippi's mouth and doubled U.S. territory.

90

Marshall Plan?

Program of European economic recovery after World War II, financed by the United States. Britain, France, West Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, and Italy were main recipients. Named for United States Secretary of State George Marshall and supported by President Truman.

91

Mass Public Opinion Trends

Mass public is far more conservative in trade, intervention, and dimplomacy than policy makers

92

Militant Realism

What sub-ideology?: -"Every predominance, or move toward predominance, represent a threat to the other states in the international system" -Any powerful state likely will use its power to augment its power, aggressively, if necessary

93

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy issued by President James Monroe in 1823, declaring that the United States would not tolerate intervention by European nations in the affairs of nations in the Americas. Monroe also promised that the United States would not interfere with European colonies already established or with governments in Europe.

94

Morrill tariff?

The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a protectionist tariff bill passed by the U.S. Congress in early 1861. It was signed into law by Democratic president, James Buchanan of Pennslyvania, where support for higher tariffs to protect the iron industry was strong. It replaced the Tariff of 1857. The high rates of the Morrill tariff inaugurated a period of relatively continuous trade protection in the United States that lasted until the Underwood Tariff of 1913. As Frank Taussig observes, the schedule of the Morrill Tariff and its two successor bills were retained long after the end of the Civil War.

95

Munich Conference

Conference held after Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia

96

National Interest.

The elements that constitute a state's most vital needs

97

National Security Council

organization within the Executive Office of the President that provides foreign policy advice to the President

98

NATO, 1948

first U.S. alliance concluded in peacetime, provided integrated force for defense of Western Europe and North America.

99

Necessities of Deterrents

states must have the capability and the credibility to utilize deterrents

100

Necessities of Public Opinion

-Relationship between foreign policy and public opinion -how one would choose their stance on foreign policy -processes of foreign policy -attributes of the public -decision process

101

Ninth International Conference of American States 1948

created the Organization of American States (OAS) to intensify U.S. and Latin American collaboration in all fields.

102

Nonproliferation Treaty, 1967

now signed by 110 governments, banned the spread of atomic weapons.

103

open door policy?

United States efforts to develop a trade relationship with China in the late 1800s to early 1900s; urged European nations with spheres of influence in China to not restrict trade in those areas.

104

Opinion Flow

Opinion Makers - Attentive Public - Opinion Leaders - Mass Public

105

Opinion Maker's duties

-Present options for constituents -Give stricture and informational content -Makers may put out pre-made opinions -Must address attentive public -Must play a role in public submitting porcess

106

Oregon Treaty 1846

with Great Britain extended U.S. sole dominion to the Pacific.

107

Organizational Process Model

policies as decided and policies as implemented are two different things; decision making and implementation always take place at different places and by different forces

108

Peace

P associated with International institutionalism, world order, and diplomacy

109

Philippine-American War?

The Philippine-American War was a war between the armed forces of the United States and the Philippines from 1899 through 1913. In December 1898, the U.S. purchased the Philippines and other territories from Spain at the Treaty of Paris for the sum of 20 million United States dollars, after the U.S. defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War. The U.S. government made plans to make the Philippines an American colony. However, the Filipinos, fighting for their independence from Spain since 1896, had already declared their independence on June 12. On August 14, 11,000 ground troops were sent to occupy the Philippines. On January 1, 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo was declared the first President. He later organized a Congress at Malolos, Bulacan to draft a constitution. Tensions between the Filipinos and the American soldiers on the islands existed because of the conflicting movements for independence and colonization, aggravated by the feelings of betrayal on the part of the Filipinos by their former allies, the Americans. Hostilities started on February 4, 1899 when an American soldier named Robert William Grayson shot a Filipino soldier who was crossing a bridge into American-occupied territory in San Juan del Monte, an incident historians now consider to be the start of the war. Eventually the US grew tired of the war. In 1916 the United States granted the Philippines self-government and promised eventual independence. It was finally granted in 1946.

110

Pinckney Treaty?

Also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the U.S. with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed U.S. navigation rights on the Mississippi River.

111

Point Four Program?

The Point Four Program was a program for economic aid to poor countries announced by United States President Harry S. Truman at his inauguration speech on January 20, 1949. It took its name from the fact that it was mentioned as the fourth among the foreign policy objectives mentioned in the speech. The Point Four Program was the result of the situation prevailing following World War II. In order to rebuild the destruction caused by the war, the U.S. government announced the European Recovery Program in 1948, based on the initiative of U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall. Point Four Program was different from other programs in that it was not confined to any specific region; it was extended to countries such as Israel and Iran. However, U.S. government enthusiasm for the program declined under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the program was officially abolished in May 1953.

112

Power

P associated with Realism, competition of power, and coersion

113

Power, National Security Conception of NI

-power -spheres of influence -absence of principles

114

Preemption

Act before another country acts so as to PREVENT war

115

President Nixon's February visit to China 1972

followed Secretary Kissinger's earlier negotiations in Peking, marking first important step in the process of normalizing relations with the People's Republic of China.

116

President's power in Foreign Policy

Chief of State; Chief Executive; Commander in Chief; Chief Diplomat; Chief legislator

117

Principles

P associated with democratic idealism, global democracy, and politics

118

Process of public opinion

Public Opinion - Opinion Submitting - Decision Making

119

Propaganda

the promotion of information which may or may not be correct , designed to influence the beliefs and attitudes of a foreign audience

120

Prosperity

P associated with economic liberalism, global capitalism, and economy

121

Protectionism

the imposition of trade barriers, especially tariffs, to make trading conditions favorable to domestic producers

122

Public opinion dispersion

Hardliners usually found in south; urbanites are usually internationalists

123

Questions of incompitence of BoP

Why was it believed US action could be kept covert? Why was it believed that B-26's could take out Cuban Air Force? Why was it believed brigade's moral could overcome Cuba's military Why was it believed Cuban forces were weak? Why was it believed that Cubans would revolt? Why was it believed that the backup place (escape to Escombres) would work?

124

Radical (Military Inustrial) Model

individuals are not bureaucratically, but socially

125

Radical Anti-Imerpialism

"the US is an imperialistic country, even though it has no significant empire; its empire is informal, long-standing, maintained by a plethora of instruments of intervention

126

Radio Free Asia?

Radio Free Asia was created by the International Broadcasting Act of 1994 and began its operations in 1996. It is a private, non-profit corporation funded by Congress of the United States, and supervised by the Broadcasting Board of Governors. BBG's stated mission is "to promote and sustain freedom and democracy by broadcasting accurate and objective news and information about the United States and the world to audiences overseas". RFA broadcasts in 9 languages, via shortwave and the Internet. The first transmission was in Mandarin and it is RFA's most elaborate service as it is broadcast twelve hours per day. RFA also broadcasts in Tibetan, Cantonese, Uyghur, Burmese, Vietnamese, Lao, Khmer (to Cambodia) and Korean (to North Korea). RFA's mission statement: "RFA broadcasts news and information to Asian listeners who lack regular access to full and balanced reporting in their domestic media. Through its broadcasts and call-in programs, RFA aims to fill a critical gap in the lives of people across Asia."

127

Radio Free Europe?

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. The organization exists in Europe and the Middle East. It broadcasts more than 1,000 hours per week, in 28 languages, via shortwave, AM, FM and the internet. RFE/RL's mission statement is: "To promote democratic values and institutions by disseminating factual information and ideas." The National Committee for a Free Europe was founded in June 1949 in New York. RFE was the broadcasting arm of this organization. The headquarters was established in Munich and it transmitted its first short-wave program on July 4, 1950, to Czechoslovakia. The organization received its funds from the Congress of the United States and until 1971 they were passed to RFE through the CIA. The broadcasts were part of a general CIA psychological warfare campaign directed behind the Iron Curtain.

128

Radio Martí and TV Martí?

Radio and TV Martí are broadcasters based in Miami, Florida, financed by the United States government (Broadcasting Board of Governors), which transmits Spanish-language radio and TV broadcasts to Cuba. Established in 1983 by President Ronald Reagan, at the urging of Jorge Mas Canosa, with the mission of fighting communism.

129

Radio Sawa?

Radio Sawa is an Arabic language radio station, funded by the United States government. The station's goal is to provide what they claim is balanced news and information to youth in Arabic-speaking countries, as local news in many Middle Eastern countries is considered by the U.S. government as biased. The station's playlist includes popular Arabic, English and Spanish songs. Radio Sawa's first broadcast was on March 23, 2002. Its broadcasts are recorded in Washington, DC and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Radio Sara is controlled by the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), an independent agency of the U.S. government, such that staff are not civil servants under direct government control.

130

Rational Actor Model

-states make deisions and policies as a rational entity -president represents rational actor "politics stop at the water's edge" -actor's goals can be achieved through rational process

131

Reagan Doctrine

Oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. Somewhat triggered by Afghanistan - aiding mujahideen to hurt Soviets

132

Realism

What Ideology?: -"IR is a competition for the power necessary to guarentee national security" -military power is often national poower -no moral obligations

133

Realist Approach to Foreign Policy?

The Realist approach assumes that the use of power to promote the national interest of a state is the most successful foreign policy.

134

Representative

delegates of people are of the people and are also citizens and share values with their constituents

135

Result of Bay of Pigs

-Dulles fired -Castro held exiles US paid 53 mil. for exiles

136

Revisionist Approach to Foreign Policy?

A Revisionist approach to foreign policy seeks to alter territorial, ideological, or power distribution to the state's advantage.

137

Riga Axioms

Conferences that established Soviet Union as a ideolically driven country that cannot be dealt with

138

Rogue States

countries that break international norms and produce, sell, or use weapons

139

Roosevelt Corollary?

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (from 1901 to 1909) was a substantial alteration (called an "amendment") of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. In its altered state, the Monroe Doctrine would now consider Latin America as an agency for expanding U.S. commercial interests in the region, along with its original stated purpose of keeping European hegemony from the hemisphere. In essence, Roosevelt's Monroe Doctrine would be the basis for a use of economic and military hegemony to make the U.S. the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere. The new doctrine was a frank statement that the U.S. was willing to seek leverage over Latin American governments by acting as an international police power in the region. Described as a policy of speaking softly but carrying a big stick, the Roosevelt announcement launched an era of the "big stick." In contrast with later dollar diplomacy, Roosevelt's approach was more controversial among isolationist-pacifists in the U.S.

140

Rootes of Isolationism

-Monroe Doctrine -American moral superiority -America escaped monarchs, churches, revolutions, fascism, and nationalism -National sovereignty and autonomy -moved away from this in 1940's (WWII)

141

Root-Takahira agreement?

The Root-Takahira Agreement of 1908 was a contract between the United States and Japan. Relations between Japan and the United States remained tense during Theodore Roosevelt's second term. Tensions had developed earlier over spheres of influence in the Far East and the treatment of Japanese living in the U.S. Further, Roosevelt had never been forgiven for his opposition to Russian reparations for the Japanese at the end of the earlier war between those two nations. Many American farmers and laborers on the West Coast resented competition from hard-working Japanese immigrants. Conditions had deteriorated so badly by 1907 that there was talk of war in both countries. A small, positive step was taken in 1907 when the United States and Japan concluded the so-called "Gentlemen's Agreement," in which Japan promised to slow the exodus of workers destined for the U.S. Racial antipathy remained, however, particularly in California. Roosevelt was dedicated to further improving relations, realizing that the American position in the Philippines would be difficult to maintain against a Japanese adversary. An exchange of notes followed between Elihu Root, the U.S. secretary of state, and Takahira Kogoro, the Japanese ambassador in Washington. The resulting position statements included the following: A pledge to maintain the status quo in the Far East, Recognition of China's independence and territorial integrity, and support for continuation of the Open Door policy, An agreement to mutual consultation in the event of future Far Eastern crises. The Root-Takahira Agreement appeared to be a great success, given that the war drums in both nations were quieted. However, implicit in the understanding was American recognition of two controversial Japanese actions—the annexation of Korea and their increasing dominance in Manchuria. Indeed, the Japanese were espousing a type of Monroe Doctrine for the Far East, but one that assigned Japan a far more powerful economic role than the United States had in Latin America.

142

Russian Civil War

Russian event that preceded WWII and US-Soviet tensions

143

Sanctions against S. Africa

helped to bring an end to apartheid in 1991.

144

Self Determination

States need this _____ because: -people cannot be subordinate -there are spheres of influence -foreign domination -social unrest around the world harms US -all occurrences of foreign domination are incorrect

145

Six Pillars of US security

-superior economy -superior military -geography -power balance in Eurasia -Nuclear weapons -US isolation from foreign conflicts

146

Six Tenants of Appeasement of War

-War is caused by two parties, an aggressor and an appeaser -Deterrents are necessary b/c aggressors are present and deterrents will succeed -Credibility of a deterrent can only be demonstrated through capablility and the courage to use it -Confrontati

147

Skybolt affair?

The Nassau Agreement was a treaty negotiated between President John F. Kennedy for the United States and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan for the United Kingdom. It was discussed by the two leaders over three days in the Bahamas and signed 18 December 1962. Under the agreement the USA was to provide the UK with nuclear-armed Polaris missiles (under the terms of the Polaris Sales Agreement), in return for which the UK was to lease the Americans a nuclear submarine base in the Holy Loch, near Glasgow. The agreement was clear that the UK's Polaris missiles were part of a 'multi-lateral force' within NATO and could only be used independently when 'supreme national interests' intervened. The agreement followed the collapse of the Skybolt programme, which was an air-launched missile developed jointly by the two nations. No longer needed by the US, Skybolt's termination left a hole in the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent. Charles de Gaulle considered the signing of the agreement to be a clear signal that the UK was aligning itself more closely with the US, and this contributed to his decision to refuse the United Kingdom's entry to the EEC in January 1963.

148

Social-democracy

System of politics-economy most countries fell into after WWII

149

Spanish American war?

A war between Spain and the United States in 1898, as a result of which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands, and Guam to the United States and abandoned all claim to Cuba, which became independant in 1902.

150

Status Quo Approach to Foreign Policy?

The Status Quo Approach to Foreign Policy seeks to maintain the territorial, ideological, or power distribution of the state.

151

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) agreements 1972

with U.S.S.R. prescribed mutual limitations on defensive and offensive weapons and established SALT as a continuing process.

152

Structural Defense Policy

foreign policy dealing with defense spending, military bases, and weapons procurement

153

Superterrorism

the potential use of weapons of mass destruction in a terrorist attack

154

Tariff of 1857?

The Tariff of 1857 was a major tax reduction in the United States, creating a mid-century lowpoint for tariffs. It amended the Walker Tariff of 1846 by lowering rates to around 17% on average. The Tariff of 1857's cuts lasted only three years, though. In 1861 the country changed course under the heavily protectionist Morrill Tariff of 1861.

155

Terrorism

an act of violence that targets civilians for the purpose of provoking widespread fear that will force the government to change its policies

156

The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia 1995

ended the Bosnian civil war by providing for NATO troops to serve as peacekeepers.

157

The Logic of Liberal Internationalism

The logic that the US has the moral obligation to contribute substantially to solving global problems

158

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1994

between the United States, Canada, and Mexico took effect and the United States joined another structure that promoted global free trade, the World Trade Organization.

159

Treaty of Alliance with France, 1778

engineered by Benjamin Franklin, enabled the fledgling republic to continue its struggle for independence

160

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848

ending 1846-48 war with Mexico, confirmed U.S. claim to Texas and completed U.S. expansion to Pacific.

161

Treaty of Paris 1898

at end of Spanish-American War, transferred to the United States Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, expanding U.S. power into the Pacific.

162

Treaty of Paris-1783

Great Britain recognized American independence and control over western lands as far as the Mississippi.

163

Truman Doctrine

A U.S foreign policy designed to contain communism by stoppint it's spread to Greece and Turkey. President Harry S. Truman proclaimed the Doctrine on March 12, 1947.

164

Two Types of Delegate

Burkian and Representative delegate

165

U.N. 1945

U.S. and 50 other countries founded the United Nations

166

U.S.-China 1979

established diplomatic relations with China

167

USAID?

The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. An independent federal agency, it receives overall foreign policy guidance from the US Secretary of State.

168

Valid Opinion makeup

It must have noticeable preferences: -Should display options and your preference +show one's opinion as only alternative +other opinions are ineffective -Well grounded in a coherent account of the consequences of policy -Theory of an outcome with an issue (consequences) -One must understand the facts of the case to further evaluate consequences

169

Voice of America?

The Voice of America (VOA) is the official broadcasting service of the United States government. It is one of the best-known stations in international broadcasting and is similar to international broadcasters such as the BBC World Service, BBC World, Deutsche Welle, and Radio France Internationale. VOA was organized in 1942 under the Office of War Information with news programs aimed at German-occupied Europe and North Africa. VOA began broadcasting on February 24, 1942. Voice of America began to transmit radio broadcasts into the Soviet Union on February 17, 1947. Under United States law (the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948), the Voice of America is forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens. The original intent of this legislation is to keep the federal government from having a direct outlet to their domestic public, unlike many European countries.

170

Walker tariff?

The 1846 Walker tariff was a Democratic bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig-backed "Black Tariff" of 1842 under president John Tyler. It was one of the lowest tariffs in American history. The tariff's reductions (35% to 25%) coincided with Britain's repeal of the Corn Laws earlier that year, leading to a decline in protection in both and an increase in trade. The bill resulted in a moderate reduction in many tariff rates and was considered a success in that it stimulated trade and brought needed revenue into the U.S. Treasury, as well as improved relations with Britain that had soured over the Oregon boundary dispute.

171

Washington's Farewell Address

"Just and amicable feelings towards all nations" "No permanent attachments or hate for any nations" "Troubles seperating economic and political ties"

172

Weapons of Mass Destruction

nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons that can kill a whole lotta peeps

173

Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842

with Great Britain delimited northeastern U.S. (Maine) boundary.

174

What branch of government negotiates treaties?

The Executive, subject to the approval of the senate.

175

What territories did the US take from Spain in the spanish american war?

Puerto Rico, The phillipines, and Cuba. it took place starting in 1898. The phillipinos, and later the cubans would fight for their independance.

176

Who can receive foreign ambassadors?

Only the president.

177

Wilson's 14 points?

Presented at Peace Talks (1919) at end of WWI: Versailles. St. Germain and Trianon Treaties. Free trade and lower tariffs. Reductions is armaments. Decolonization of empires. Self determination with trusteeships. CREATE INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE WITH COLLECTIVE SECURITY PROVISION (LEAGUE OF NATIONS AND ARTICLE 10 OF LEAGUE CHARTER)

178

World Bank

economic institution that makes large low-cost loans with long repayment terms to countries, primarily for infrastructure construction or repairs

179

Yalta Conferences

Confrences that established Soviet Union as a reasonable rational power that can be dealt with with diplomatically