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Flashcards in Fundamentals Of Drug Action Deck (76)
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What a drug does to the body / the actions drugs have on the body

Pharmacodynamics

1

Route that insulin is given

Subcutaneously (connective tissue)

2

How nitroglycerin tablets are taken
If taken orally, what happens

Sublingually
It will have a high first pass metabolism

3

Which route is Oraquix taken

Liquid Topically

4

What the body does with a drug

Pharmacokinetics

5

The greater the TI the greater the

Safe drug

6

Involves drug receptors,drug response, and dose response.

Pharmacodynamics

7

A protein located in cell membranes of every cell

Drug receptor

8

A drug that combines with a receptor to initiate a response and rapidly releases from the receptor

Agonist

9

Blocker drug that binds to receptor but does not release from it

Antagonist

10

Has a high efficacy

Agonist

11

Has no efficacy

Antagonist

12

Most drugs are agonists or antagonists

Agonists

13

"Blocking drug"

Antagonist

14

Which drug has no efficacy and which has slight efficacy?

Antagonist and partial antagonist

15

Name three enteral routes of drug administration

Oral. Sublingual. Rectal.

16

Take by mouth Latin abbreviation

PO

17

Which route is absorb directly they oral mucosa

Sublingual

18

Common route for infants children and older adults in suppository form. And why is this route administered ?

Rectal cause drug may irritate stomach or pt. may be vomiting or cain't swallow pill

19

Routes of drug administration

Enteral. Parenteral. Topical.

20

Parental routes

Intramuscular
subcutaneous
intravenous
intradermal
intrathecal

21

Rectal administration Latin abb.

Par

22

IV injections enter what layers of skin

CSF or veins

23

IV route is most common for pts. Who are critically ill. Why?

It's the fastest drug and it's easy to control resulting in predictable blood levels.

24

IM example

Hep B vaccine

25

IM administration is injected into what part of body skeletal muscle?

Glutes and deltoids

26

IM injections pass through ________ walls to get I tot he blood stream.

Capillary

27

The dose needed to produce the desired therapeutic effect is

Potency

28

______ is the maximum intensity of effect or response a drug produces

Efficacy

29

What is the fastest and most predictable method of administering a drug

Intravenously

30

All of The following are parenteral routes of drug administration except

Intravenous intramuscular subcutaneous
Intravenous intramuscular sub lingual
Intradermal intrathecal intraperitineal

Intravenous intramuscular and sublingual

31

Chemicals that are responsible for carrying a wide variety of messages across the nerve synapsis to the receptor very quickly are termed hormones.
examples of this type of chemical messengers includes norepinephrine Acetylcholine and dopamine

True
False

32

A drug that has an affinity for a receptor combines with receptor and produces an effect is termed

Agonist

33

All of the following are components of pharmacokinetics except one

Excretion
Distribution
Absorption
Potency

Potency

34

The primary organ involved in metabolism or biotransformation is

Liver

35

Which drug has an affinity to a receptor binds to a receptor site combines with the receptor and has no effect or reduces the effect of the drug or neotransmitter

Antagonist

36

Which drug would have the longest half-life
Amoxicillin 500 given three times a day
Ampicillin 500 given two times a day
Penicillin 500 given four times a day

Ampicillin 500 given two times a day

37

The primary organ involved in excretion is

Kidney

38

Which of the following terms best describes the term zero order kinetics
The ratio of the median lethal dose to the medium effective dose
The time necessary for the body to illuminate one half of the drug in the drug plasma to determine dosing intervals
The saturation of liver enzymes as a result of the constant rate of drug metabolism over time regardless of dose

The saturation of liver enzymes as a result of the constant rate of drug metabolism over time regardless of the dose

39

Which of the following would make my medication more readily available to be absorbed and distributed

Non-ionic form
Lipid soluble
Unbound to plasma

40

Drugs that undergo the first pass effect are given by which route of administration

Oral

41

Which term can be used to measure drug response or action

Dose response curve , potency and Efficacy

42

Potency is the maximum intensity of effect or response that can be produced by a drug.

Administering more of the drug will not increase the efficacy of the drug but can often increase the probability of an adverse reaction

False
True

43

Local reactions are caused by chemicals that are secreted into organs or areas near the release and are not related to systemic circulation. Examples of these chemicals include

Prostaglandins and histamines

44

All of the following are true up hormones except one
Hormonal reactions are faster than that of Nero transmitters
Hormones are secreted to produce affects throughout the body
Examples of hormones include insulin thyroid and adrenal cortical steroids

Hormonal reactions are faster than Nero transmitters

45

The drug with the stronger affinity for the receptor will bind to _______ receptors than the drug with the weaker affinity

More

46

A noncompetitive antagonist binds to

A different receptor

47

Once a Neruotransmitter is released which of the following occurs
Enzymes break down the Nero transmitter

The neurotransmitter interacts with a receptor and interact to produce an effect

The Nero transmitter can be taken up by the presynaptic nerve ending

All of the above

48

Cell membranes are composed of lipids proteins and carbohydrates
The membrane lipids make the membrane relatively permeable to ions and polar molecules

True
False

49

Which properties affect a drug's ability to pass across the biological membrane of the cell

Lipid solubility, degree of ionizing, molecular size and shape, carbohydrate solubility, all of the above

Letters A, B and C only

50

How do Lipid soluble substances move across the lipoprotein cell membrane

Bypass the transfer of simple diffusion

51

Absorption is the process by which drug molecules are transferred from the site of metabolism to the circulating blood
This process requires the drug to pass through biological membranes

False the second is true

52

In the presence of infection the ________of the tissue increases and the pH decreases. the effect of the local anesthetics decreases.

Acidity

53

The passage of drugs into various body fluid compartment such as plasma interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid is called

Distribution

54

In the distribution of a drug the biologic activity of the drug is related to the

Concentration of free or unbound drug in the plasma

55

When a drug that is highly bound to the plasma is displaced by a Nother administer a drug that is also highly bound what would happen to the drug effect of the first drug administered

The drug effect is increased

56

How many half-lives is required for a drug to be essentially removed from systemic circulation

4-5 half-lives

57

True or false the placenta ask as a selective barrier against the passage of most drugs and most drugs cannot pass easily across the placental barrier

False and false

58

Drugs must penetrate the blood brain barrier to effective the ______nervous system and have an effect.
The more _____soluble and non-ionized the drug is the more easily it will penetrate the blood brain barrier.

Central and lipid soluble

59

If enterohepatic circulation is blocked what will happen to the drug circulating in the system

The drug will decrease

60

When an active metabolite is formed the action of the drug is______

Prolonged

61

Where is the primary site of metabolism by Hydrolysis

Blood plasma

62

Drugs that cause in zyme induction cause other drugs to be more quickly______.

The other metabolize drugs will have a reduced ________.

Metabolized

Effect

63

Erythromycin and cimetidine inhibit what organ's enzymes

Does this increase plasma levels and affect actions of other drugs?

Liver
Yes and yes

64

Name the methods of excretion by the kidneys

Glomerular
Active
Passive

65

Which administration of injections in the skeletal muscle of the gluteus maximus and deltoid passes through capillary walls to enter the bloodstream.

IM parenteral admin

66

Latin abb. for subcutaneous

SB or SQ

67

Example of SQ

Insulin and dental anesthetics

68

Give an example of intradermal injection.

For allergic reactions or TB skin test with purified protein derivative's (PPD)

69

What drug characteristic will increase the tendency of a drug to cross cell membranes

Non-ionized and low lipid solubility

70

Name the two drug elimination routes

Biotransformation in excretion

71

Tachphylaxis is A very rapid development of

Tolerance

72

Displacement of a drug from last night album binding sites with usually be expected to

Increase blood levels of the drug

73

What route a drug follow after intravenous administration

Vein general circulation liver kidney

74

When a drug is taken orally it has to pass to barriers name the two tissue barriers

Epithleal cells and blood vessels

75

Lipid soluble drugs are absorbed through what wall

Lipid soluble drugs go through what brain barrier

Lipid soluble drugs can be given by what form of administration

Absorbed through blood vessel walls
Goes through the blood brain barrier
Can be given by inhalation