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Flashcards in Fundamentals of Mycology Deck (79)
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1

[Mycotoxin: Commodity: Fungus: Effects]
Deoxynivalenol/Nivalenol

Deoxynivalenol/Nivalenol: Wheat, Maize, Barley: F. graminaruem, F. cookwellense: Human and pig toxicoses

2

[Mycotoxin: Commodity: Fungus: Effects]
Zearalenone

Zearalenone: Maize, Wheat:-:Human carcinogen

3

[Mycotoxin: Commodity: Fungus: Effects]
Ochratoxin A

Ochratoxin A: Maize, Wheat: A. ochraceus, P. verrucosum: Human and pig carcinogen

4

[Mycotoxin: Commodity: Fungus: Effects]
Fumosin B1

Fumosin B1: Maize: - : Human carcinogen, toxic to pig and poultry

5

The ff are possible effects of mycotoxins except
a. Immune suppression
b. nephrotoxic
c. idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis
d. dermal toxicosis
e. gastro-intestinal disturbances
f. parasympathetic nerve system effects
f. liver hemorrhage
g. hepatic necrosis
h. estrogenic effects
i. lung and brain hemorrhage

None of the above

6

Rhizopus
a. coenocytic
b. septate

A

7

Penicillin
a. coenocytic
b. septate

B

8

Mucor
a. coenocytic
b. septate

A

9

Sporothrix schenckii
a. Yeast
b. Mold
c. Dimorphic

C

10

Dimorphic fungus in external environment is in what form?

Mold

11

Dimorphic fungus in host t is in what form?

Yeast

12

Define Plasmogamy

Fusion of cytoplasm

13

Define Karyogamy

Fusion of nuclei

14

Mycelia and spores are
a. haploid
b. diploid
c. heterokaryotic

A

15

After plasmogamy fungus will be
a. haploid
b. diploid
c. heterokaryotic

B

16

After Karyogamy fungus will be
a. haploid
b. diploid
c. heterokaryotic

C

17

All forms in the life cycle of a fungus
a. Holomorph
b. Anamorph
c. Telomorph

A

18

Sexual reproductive stage; "perfect stage" e.g. Filobasidiella

C

19

Asexual reproductive stage; "imperfect stage" e.g. Cryptococcus
a. Holomorph
b. Anamorph
c. Telomorph

B

20

The ff are characteristics of members of Chytridiomycota EXCEPT
a. Motile
b. Terrestrial
c. Not cultured in artificial media
d. cause nasal oropharyngeal rhinosporidiosis

B; Aquatic

21

Rhinosporidium seeberii
a. Zygomycota
b. Ascomycota
c. Basidiomycota
d. Deuteromycota
e. Chytridiomycota

E

22

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
a. Zygomycota
b. Ascomycota
c. Basidiomycota
d. Deuteromycota
e. Chytridiomycota

B

23

Zygomycota
a. septate
b. Non-septate

B

24

Rhizopus, Absidia, Mucor, Rhizomucor
a. Mucorales
b. Entomophthorales

A

25

Conidiobolus, Basidiobols
a. Mucorales
b. Entomophthorales

B

26

fruiting bodies of ascomycota is a.k.a

ascocarps

27

Describe the dolipore septa of Basidiomycota

septa with bagel-shaped pore at its center

28

Basidiomycota nuclei move through ________ during cell division

clamp connections

29

DIvision of fungi with no sexual spores, reproducing via conidiogenesis

Deuteromycota

30

When do we suspect fungal infections?

-prolonged fever not responding to antibiotics
-neutropenia
-diabetes w/ ketoacidosis
-solid organ transplant
-HIV+
-Xray infiltrates, miliary aspect, cavities

31

[Method of Examination]
Candida, Malassezia, Sporothrix, Nocardia, Actinomyces

Gram Stain

32

[Method of Examination]
Cryptococcus

India Ink

33

[Method of Examination]
Aspergillus

Periodic acid-Schiff stain

34

What is the rationale behind using KOH in vieweing biopsy materials, exudates from lesions on skin, nails, and hair?

KOH lyse keratinaceous substances while presenting fungal elements

35

Calcufluor white is used for

optical brightening in KOH wet preparation

36

Why is Saboraud's dextrose agar suitable for fungal cultures?

pH 5.6; with antibitotics (gentamycin, chloramphenicol)

37

Ciprofloxacin is added to growth media to inhibit growth of

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

38

Cycloheximide is used to

prevent overgrowth of slowly growing molds

39

Fungi inhibited by cycloheximide include

Aspergillus fugimatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida krusei, Trichoporon

40

What is sheep blood for?

used for organisms that require enrichment before they are recovered

41

What is Smith's Medium for?

for recovery of contaminated specimen; contains ammonium hydroxide

42

[Incubation time]
Dermatophytes

2 weeks

43

[Incubation time]
Opportunists

less than a week

44

[Incubation time]
Systemic

4-6 weeks

45

Large surface area for isolation
Aeration enhanced
Easier to prepare microscopic mounts
Contamination Likely
Less safe to handle
Dehydration
a. Culture Dishes
b. Culture Tubes

A; otherwise B

46

Examples of filamentous fungi

Aspergillus fumigatus
Mucor
Rhizopus
Penicillium
Fusarium

47

Enumerate methods other than direct microscopic examination to test for fungal infection

Cryptocooccal antigen detection in body fluids
Multiple test system for yeasts
Serologic yeasts such as latex agglutination test
Nucleic acid probes for dimorphic fungi
Real time pCR for histoplasma and coccidiotis
Nuclei acid synthesis

48

Causative organisms of Pityriasis versicolor a.k.a "an-an"

Malassezia furfur, Exophiala werneckii

49

What is the usual etiologic agent of pityriasis versicolor?

Malassezia globosa, part of our normal flora

50

[Treatment]
Pityriasis versicolor

Keratinolytic agents e,g, Miconazole, Selenium Sulfide (1%)

51

[Identify]
Condition with gray to black non- inflammatory, non-scaling well-demarcated macular lesions that appear like silver nitrate burns. Occuring on the palms and sometimes feet. Diagnosed by KOH preparation showing pigmented brown to dark septate hyphal elements and 2-celled yeast cells

Tinea nigra

52

White piedra is caused by

Trichosporon

53

Black piedra is caused by

Piedra hortae

54

What causes cutaneous mycoses?

dermatophytes

55

Which is a geophilic dermatophyte?
a. Microsporum gypseum
b. Microsporum canis
c. Trichophyton tonsurans
d. Trichophyton verrucosum

A

56

The following are Zoophilic dermatophytes except
a. Microsporum canis
b. Trichophyton mentagrophytes
c. Trichophyton verrucosum
d. Trichophyton rubrum

D; Anthropophilic

57

The following are anthropophilic dermatophyes except
a. Trichophyton rubrum
b. Trichophyton tonsurans
c. Epidermophyton floccosum
d. Microsporum gypseum

D; Geophilic

58

Dermatophyte infections are mostly seen in _________ patients
a. immunocompromised
b. immunocompetent

B

59

WIth large, multiseptate, rough-walled and spindle shaped macroconidia. Macroconidia always seen in culture. Colony is white, reversesideis golden yellow pigment.
a. Microsporum
b. Trychophyton
c. Epidermophytan

A

60

Produces large, multiseptate, smooth-walled and club-shaped macroconidia. Colony is khaki-colored with white areas in cornmeal agar; with chlamydoconidia (Chlamydospore: a thick-walled asexual spore of many fungi: capable of surviving adverse conditions)
a. Microsporum
b. Trychophyton
c. Epidermophytan

C

61

With elongeted, pencil to cigar-shaped, smooth walled, multiseptate and thin-walled macroconidia. Microconidia are arranged in clusters. Infects hair, skin and nails.
a. Microsporum
b. Trychophyton
c. Epidermophytan

B

62

Microsporum infecting cats, dogs and humans

M. canis

63

Microsporum from soil with cinnamon-colored, suede-like colony

M. gypseum

64

M. audouinii infects

hair and skin

65

Tinea capitis infect which areas of the body?

scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes

66

Describe Tinea fabosa

more serious tinea capitis infection since hair growth is infected; cup and saucer appearance

67

What fungi can cause Tinea capitis?

Trychophyton tonsurans
Microsporum canis
Microsporum audoini
Trichophyton violaceum

68

Superficial infection of the skin limited to southwest Polynesia, Melanesia, SE Asia, India and Central America
a. Tinea capitis
b. Tinea barbae
c. Tinea cruris
d. Tinea imbricata

D

69

Infection limited to bearded areas of the face and neck
a. Tinea capitis
b. Tinea barbae
c. Tinea cruris
d. Tinea imbricata

B

70

Infection of the groin, perineum and perianal region
a. Tinea capitis
b. Tinea barbae
c. Tinea cruris
d. Tinea imbricata

C

71

What are the fungi that usually cause tinea cruris?

Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes

72

Describe Tinea corporis

infection of the smooth skin of the trunk and extremities.

73

What fungi are involved in Tinea corporis

Trichophyton rubrum, Trycophyton metagrophytes, Microsporum canis

74

Caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum
a. Tinea cruris and Tinea pedis
b. Tinea capitis and Tinea mannum
c. Tinea corporis and Tinea cruris
d. Tinea imbricata and Tinea barbae

A

75

What fungi cause Onychomycosis or Tinea unguim?

Aspergillus, Fusarium

76

What is the causative organism of Sporotrichosis?

Sporothrix schenckii

77

Sporotrichosis is a.k.a

Rose gardener's disease

78

describe morphology of Sporothrix culture on SDA

moist and glaborous, wrinkled and folded surface, colored white to cream to black

79

Chronic, slowly progressive and localized infection with crusted, verrucose, wart-like lesions caused by Fonsecaea, Phialophora, Cladosporium, etc.

Chromoblastomycosis