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LU4 HS202 Micro Para Psych > Introduction to Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Microbiology Deck (29)
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0

Enumerate 5 ways microbes affect our lives

Subjects of study
Normal flora of the body
Maintain balance in the enviroment
Genetic engineering
Commercial and industrial use

1

Who discovered plant cells and described them in his book Micrographia

Robert Hooke

2

Who observed microbes under the microscope and named them animalcules?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

3

What did Francesco Redi contribute?

Redi's experiment provided evidence against spontaneous generation

4

Who tried to disprove spontaneous generation by boiling mutton broth in several tubes and sealing it?

John Needham

5

Who challenged Needham by boiling mutton broth tubes for a longer time?

Lazzaro Spallanzani

6

What are Louis Pasteur's contributions?

Germ theory of disease
Vaccines for rabies, diphtheria and anthrax
Pasteurization of food

7

British surgeon who introduced carbolic acid, then known as a sewage treatment chemical, to sterilize surgical instruments and clean wounds

Joseph Lister

8

Who discovered M. tuberculosis?

Robert Koch

9

Enumerate Koch's Postulates

1. the microorganism should be present in EVERY case if the disease
2. The microorganism should be isolated from the diseased host and grown in a pure culture
3. The microorganism should be inoculated in a healthy host and the same disease must result
4. The same microorganism must be isolated from the diseased host

10

Who proposed that antibodies are reaponsible for immunity?

Paul Erlich

11

Who discovered penicillin?

Alexander Fleming

12

What is the target of penicillin?

Peptidoglycan cross linking

13

Who made the five kingdom scheme of classifying organisms?

Robert Whittaker

14

The 5 Kingdom scheme is based on

Cell type,
Mode of nutrition
Cellular organization

15

Lack peptidoglycan, live in extreme environments, and include methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles

Domain archaeabacteria

16

Eukaryoti multicellular organisms without cell walls that are ingestive heterotrophs

Kingdom animalia

17

Eukaryotic multicellular organisms with cellulose in cell wall. They are usually photoautotrophic and nonmotile

Plantae

18

Unicillular or multicellular eukaryotes with chitin in cell wall. They are absorptive heterotrophs, nonmotile and develop from spores or hyphal fragments

Fungi

19

Multicellular animals with microscopic life cycle stages and usually live off using the host's nutrients

Animal parasites

20

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes in terms of nucleus

Prokaryotes: single circular chromosome without nuclear envelope
Eukaryotes: membrane bound nucleus with individual chromosomes

21

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes in terms of extradhromosomal DNA

Prokaryotes: in plasmids, responsible for virulence
Eukaryotes: in organelles e.g. Mitochondria

22

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes in terms of organelles

P: none
E: present

23

Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes in terms of cytoplasmic membrane

P: contains enzymes for respiration: active secretion of enzymes; site if phospholipid and enzyme synthesis
E:semipermeable layer without prokaryotic membrane functions

24

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes in terms of cell wall

P: peptidoglycan except for Mycoplasma
E: none; if there is, made up of cellulose or chitin

25

Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes in terms of sterols

P: absent except in Mycoplasma
E: usually present

26

Prokaryotes vs. eykaryotes in terms of ribosomes

p: 70S in cytoplasm
e: 80S in ER

27

How do bacteria multiply?

Binary fission

28

What are the 3 components that make up fungal cell wall?

Chitin
Glucan
Mannan