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General Aviation Manufacturers Association


Gimbal ring

A type of support that allows an object, such
as a gyroscope, to remain in an upright condition when its
base is tilted.


Glideslope (GS)

Part of the ILS that projects a radio beam
upward at an angle of approximately 3° from the approach
end of an instrument runway. The glideslope provides
vertical guidance to aircraft on the final approach course for
the aircraft to follow when making an ILS approach along
the localizer path.


Glideslope intercept altitude

The minimum altitude of an
intermediate approach segment prescribed for a precision
approach that ensures obstacle clearance.


Glideslope Landing System (GLS)

An instrument approach with
lateral and vertical guidance with integrity limits (similar to
barometric vertical navigation (BARO VNAV).


Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

navigation system that provides autonomous geospatial
positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic
receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and
altitude) to within a few meters using time signals transmitted
along a line of sight by radio from satellites.


Global Positioning System (GPS)

Navigation system
that uses satellite rather than ground-based transmitters for
location information.



As used in radio frequency (RF) antenna
systems, a direction-sensing device consisting of two fixed
loops of wire oriented 90° from each other, which separately
sense received signal strength and send those signals to two
rotors (also oriented 90°) in the sealed direction-indicating
instrument. The rotors are attached to the direction-indicating
needle of the instrument and rotated by a small motor until
minimum magnetic field is sensed near the rotors.


GPS Approach Overlay Program

An authorization for
pilots to use GPS avionics under IFR for flying designated
existing nonprecision instrument approach procedures, with
the exception of LOC, LDA, and SDF procedures.


Graveyard spiral

The illusion of the cessation of a turn
while still in a prolonged, coordinated, constant rate turn,
which can lead a disoriented pilot to a loss of control of the


Great circle route

The shortest distance across the surface
of a sphere (the Earth) between two points on the surface.


Ground adjustable trim tab

Non-movable metal trim tab
on a control surface. Bent in one direction or another while
on the ground to apply trim forces to the control surface.


Ground effect

The condition of slightly increased air
pressure below an airplane wing or helicopter rotor system
that increases the amount of lift produced. It exists within
approximately one wing span or one rotor diameter from the
ground. It results from a reduction in upwash, downwash,
and wingtip vortices, and provides a corresponding decrease
in induced drag.


Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS)

A system
designed to determine an aircraft’s clearance above the Earth
and provides limited predictability about aircraft position
relative to rising terrain.



Speed over the ground, either closing speed to
the station or waypoint, or speed over the ground in whatever
direction the aircraft is going at the moment, depending upon
the navigation system used.


Gyroscopic preccession

An inherent quality of rotating
bodies, which causes an applied force to be manifested 90°
in the direction of rotation from the point where the force
is applied.